Character of the Noble Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
من أخلاق الرسول صلى الله عليه وسلم

الشيخ عبد المحسن العباد حفظه الله

Character of the Noble Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam)
Shaikh Abdul Muhsin al-Abbaad hafithahu Allah
The Muhaddith of Tabah At-Tayyibah Al-Madinah Nabaweyyah

His Manners (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam)
The linguistic meanings of khuluq are: the religion, one’s nature, and one’s personality.  This is what was mentioned by Ibn al-Atheer in (his book) Ghareeb al-Hadeeth.
Literally, it carries two meanings; the first is more general than the second.  It can mean a characteristic that is engrained in one’s soul, and the person who has this characteristic either deserves praise or criticism for it. 
The second: It can also mean adhering to the laws of Islam, and its etiquettes, whether it is something you do or desist from.
An example of the usage of the first meaning is the Prophet's (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) statement to Ashaj ‘Abdul-Qays:
قال لأشجِّ عبد القيس: ((إن فيك لخلقين يحبهما الله: الحلم والأناة ))، قال: يا رسول الله أخلقين تخلقت بهما أم جبلت عليهما؟ قال: ((بل جبلت عليهما ))، قال: الحمد لله الذي جبلني على خلقين يحبهما الله.
“Verily, you have two khuluq (characteristics) that Allah loves: forbearance and tolerance.”  He said, “O Messenger of Allah! Are they two characteristics that I became accustomed to, or was I created with them?” He said, “Rather, you were created with them.”  He said, “All praise is due to Allah Who has created me with two characteristics that Allah loves.”
An example of the usage of the second meaning is the Prophet's (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) statement:
قوله : ((البر حسن الخلق))، وقول عائشة رضي الله عنها في تفسير قوله تعالى: {وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَى خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ}: ((كان خلقه القرآن)).
 “Righteousness is having good khuluq”. (Another example is) the statement of ‘Aishah (radiyAllaahu’anha) in the explanation of Allah’s statement
{وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَى خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ}
"And indeed, you are upon excellent character (khuluq),"
(Surah al-Qalam, ayah 4)
 “His moral character (khuluq) was (an embodiment of) the Qur’aan.” This is the definition of manners, linguistically and literally.
The character of the Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam):
We will now move on to the subject of his (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) high and praiseworthy character – which he held in all situations during his lifetime. He had the best manners amongst people; all praiseworthy manners were found in his character. Allah protected him from even the smallest unworthy characteristics. This was out of His favors and blessings and so that his enemies – those who stood in the way of his da'wah, warning others against him, harming him – could not speak against him. The most beloved thing for them was to find some trait in him that they could attack – but they never could.
The Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) was raised from the beginning of his life to the last moment of his life adorned with every good manner, far from any unworthy manners. He was the most knowledgeable of people, the most sincere, the most eloquent and strongest in speech, the one with the most modesty – an example of trustworthiness, truthfulness and chastity. Allah taught him good manners and perfected them for him. He was the most intelligent of all people, the most well- mannered, with the most forbearance. He had the most strength, bravery and compassion and he was the most generous of people. He had the highest status amongst people and he had the greatest amount of every praiseworthy characteristic befitting of people. He was free from every unworthy characteristic and all his friends, and even enemies – were witnesses to that. In what follows I will mention some of what the Prophet's enemies and friends testified about him (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) in regards to his excellent character. These testimonies clearly show the Prophet's adherence to excellent manners – even before Allah made him a Messenger.

Khadijah's (radiyAllaahu’anha) testimony: 
When Allah tala first began to reveal the Message to His Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) in the Cave of Hira, the Prophet returned to Khadijah and told her what had happened, and said, "I was scared for myself." She replied (radiyAllaahu’anha), "Never! By Allah, Allah will never disgrace you. You keep good relations with your kith and kin, help the poor and the destitute, serve your guests generously and assist the ones who have been afflicted with calamity." (Sahih Al-Bukhari)

The testimony of the Disbelievers of Quraysh while they were building the Ka'baa:

When Quraysh began to rebuild the Ka'baa before the Message was revealed to Muhammad, they argued who would lift the black stone into its place. They then agreed to let the first person who entered the Haraam to decide who would do the task. So the first person to enter was the Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam). They were all delighted and said, "The trustworthy has come, Muhammad has come." They used to name him the "trustworthy one" because of what they knew of his trustworthiness. May Allah's peace and blessings be upon him.

His Character (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) as Mentioned in the Qur'an
 Allah the Most High blessed His khalil (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) to be characterized by the best of manners, and that is the bounty of Allah which He gives to whom He wills, and Allah is the Possessor of great bounty. He also praised him and mentioned the beautiful manners he was graced with, in many ayahs of Allah's Glorious Book. I will be brief by just mentioning a few of them, such as the saying of Allah,

{وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلَى خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ}
"And indeed, you are upon excellent character (khuluq),"
(Surah al-Qalam, ayah 4)

Allah informs us in this noble ayah of the excellent manners which the Chosen One (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) was upon and described his (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) manners as "excellent". He (the Most High) emphasized (his great manners, in the ayah) through three things:  by swearing by the pen and what they inscribe (that the Prophet has excellent manners), and by preceding the ayah with the emphatic (Arabic) "inn", and by joining the (Arabic) letter laam with the predicate. These are all different (Arabic) forms of adding emphasis to a statement.

The meaning of (what is mentioned in the ayah of the) "excellent moral character" which the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) was upon, has been mentioned by the pious predecessors in similar words.
Ibn Abbas (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said that it means "the Great Religion", which is, "the Religion of Islam".[2]   

Aisha (radiyAllaahu’anha) was asked about his (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) manners, and she replied, "His manners were (an embodiment) of the Qur'an." The meaning of that is that obeying what Allah ordered and staying away from what He forbade in the Qur'an became his character and nature (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam). [3]
Aisha (radiyAllaahu’anha) elaborated on her previous statement, saying, "The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to say in his rukoo', 'subhanak Allahumma wa bi hamdak, Allahumma ighfirlee (You are free from all imperfections O Allah and You are Perfect. O Allah forgive me)', [4] thus enacting the Qur'an." Meaning, he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) would supplicate with this du'aa in obedience to what Allah ordered in Surah an-Nasr,

{فَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ وَاسْتَغْفِرْهُ}
"Then exalt [Him] with praise of your Lord and ask forgiveness of Him,"
(Surah An-Nasr: ayah 3)

Allah (the Exalted) mentioned what He created His Prophet upon of (the characteristics of) mercy and gentleness to the believers, and keenness over whatever will benefit them in their life and hereafter, and feeling pain over whatever is difficult for them (and also) showing His favors upon the believers by sending him (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam), in the ayah,

{لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِنْ أَنْفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُمْ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ}
"There has certainly come to you a Messenger from amongst yourselves. Grievous to him is what you suffer; [he is] concerned over you and to the believers [he] is kind and merciful,"
(Surah at-Tawbah, ayah 128)

And He (the Most High) said,

{الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِيَّ الْأُمِّيَّ الَّذِي يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِنْدَهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالْإِنْجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُمْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَاهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَائِثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالْأَغْلَالَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ}
"Those who follow the Messenger, the unlettered Prophet, whom they find written in what they have of the Torah and the Gospel, who enjoins upon them what is right and forbids them what is wrong and makes lawful for them the good things and prohibits for them the evil and relieves them of their burden and the shackles which were upon them,"
(Surah al-A'raf, ayah 157)

And He said,
{وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ فِيكُمْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ لَوْ يُطِيعُكُمْ فِي كَثِيرٍ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ لَعَنِتُّمْ}
"And know that amongst you is the Messenger of Allah. If he were to obey you in much of the matter, you would be in difficulty,"
(Surah al-Hujurat, ayah 7)

And He (the Exalted) pointed out what he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) was characterized with of kindness and gentleness with his Ummah, in His saying,

{فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ لِنْتَ لَهُمْ وَلَوْ كُنْتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانْفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ}
"So by mercy from Allah, [O Muhammad], you were lenient with them. And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you,"
(Surah Ali-'Imran, ayah 159)

Allah says, regarding what he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) was characterized with of sincerity, trustworthiness, and carrying out the responsibilities of the Message in the way which Allah willed for it to be carried out,

{وَالنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَى (1) مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى (2) وَمَا يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى (3) إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى}
"By the star when it descends, your companion [Muhammad] has not strayed, nor has he erred, nor does he speak from [his own] inclination. It is not but a revelation revealed,"
(Surah an-Najm, ayah 1-4)

And He says, speaking about Muhammad (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam),

{وَمَا هُوَ عَلَى الْغَيْبِ بِضَنِينٍ}
"And Muhammad is not a daneen, withholder of [knowledge of] the unseen [i.e. whatever Allah revealed to him],"
(Surah at-Takwir, ayah 24)

In some of the Quranic modes of recitation, "daneen" is read "dhaneen" (with the Arabic letter dhaa), meaning "accused (of withholding knowledge of the unseen)", and the other is read with the Arabic letter "daad" meaning "withholder (of the knowledge of the unseen)". Both meanings negate (such attributes) from him, for he is not accused of concealing what Allah revealed to him, nor did he withhold in (conveying) what Allah revealed to him, rather he shared it with everyone.

His Manners as Mentioned in His Sunnah and in the Sayings of His Companions
The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) was, before Allah sent him with the Great Message, at the highest pinnacle of good manners. (He possessed) truthfulness, trustworthiness, generosity, forbearance, bravery, chastity, contentment, and other traits which, if someone were to have one of them, he would achieve much honor and greatness – let alone one who possesses all of them!
When Allah sent him (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) with the Light and Guidance to jinn and mankind, He increased him in his praiseworthy traits until he reached the highest peak (in good manners) which no human can ever reach, as he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said, "Indeed I have been sent to complete good manners." Allah mentioned His blessings and favors upon His Prophet and khalil, Muhammad (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam), in many ayahs of the Qur'an, such as,
{وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَهَمَّتْ مِنْهُمْ أَن يُضِلُّوكَ وَمَا يُضِلُّونَ إِلَّا أَنْفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَضُرُّونَكَ مِنْ شَيْءٍ وَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمْ تَكُنْ تَعْلَمُ وَكَانَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ عَظِيمًا}
"And if it was not for the favor of Allah upon you, [O Muhammad], and His mercy, a group of them would have determined to mislead you. But they do not mislead except themselves, and they will not harm you at all. And Allah has revealed to you the Book and wisdom and has taught you that which you did not know. And ever has the favor of Allah upon you been great,"
(Surah an-Nisaa', ayah 113)
And His saying,
وقوله: {وَكَذَلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ رُوحًا مِنْ أَمْرِنَا مَا كُنْتَ تَدْرِي مَا الْكِتَابُ وَلَا الْإِيمَانُ وَلَكِنْ جَعَلْنَاهُ نُورًا نَهْدِي بِهِ مَنْ نَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا وَإِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِي إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ (52) صِرَاطِ اللَّهِ الَّذِي لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ أَلَا إِلَى اللَّهِ تَصِيرُ الْأُمُورُ}.
"And thus We have revealed to you an inspiration of Our command. You did not know what is the Book or [what is] faith, but We have made it a light by which We guide whom We will of Our servants. And indeed, [O Muhammad], you guide to a straight path, the path of Allah, to whom belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Unquestionably, to Allah do [all] matters evolve,"
(Surah ash-Shuraa, ayah 52-53)
And He said,
{إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُبِينًا (1) لِيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكَ وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَاطًا مُسْتَقِيمًا (2) وَيَنْصُرَكَ اللَّهُ نَصْرًا عَزِيزًا}
"Indeed, We have given you, [O Muhammad] a clear conquest [so] that Allah may forgive for you what preceded of your sin and what will follow and complete His favor upon you and guide you to a straight path, and [that] Allah may aid you with a mighty victory,"
(Surah al-Fath, ayah 1-3)
Allah the Exalted chose for His Prophet companions who were the best (people) from amongst the Muslim Ummah – which is the best of nations. They sacrificed their lives so that his (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) Message could spread, and in protecting the Sunnah and practicing it. Allah says,
{إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ}
"Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur'an and indeed, We will be its guardian,"
(Surah al-Hijr, ayah 9)
They inherited from their Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) what he came with of Truth and they passed it down to those who came after them, until Allah produced men who carried out the compilation (of the Sunnah), from amongst them – rather at the head of them – are the two Great Imams Bukhari and Muslim, and others from amongst the Scholars of Hadith. They spent their entire lives – may Allah reward them the best of rewards – recording these great gems which they inherited from their Prophet Muhammad (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam), through golden chains of narration, (these chains being connected) with the likes of Malik, Nafi', Shu'ba, Ahmad, Ali bin al-Madeeni, and others who were from amongst the finest of this Ummah. 
These precious gems which they inherited – and what a great inheritance – cover his sayings, actions, what he approved of, and make clear his physical description and manners. Because of this the Scholars of Hadith give the definition of a hadith as: whatever is attributed to the Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) from sayings, actions, approvals, or a description of his physical being or manners. 
The noble inheritors (of the great inheritance) took great care in compiling whatever came to them from their Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) in general, and specifically in regards to whatever was related to his manners and unique qualities. Some of them wrote entire books on them (i.e. his manners), and some dedicated specific chapters within their general books (of hadith), mentioning in them (hadiths) related to his fear and hope in Allah, and his generosity, altruism, modesty, loyalty, truthfulness, trustworthiness, sincerity, thankfulness, patience, forbearance, tolerance, gentleness with his Ummah and his keenness on making things easy for them, his clemency, bravery, humbleness, justice, asceticism, contentment, chastity, ghayrah (sense of protection over others), his keeping to the ties of kinship, his quality of smiling often, etc.
An Elaboration on Some of His Manners (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam)

If I were to detail some of these manners (of the Prophet) which I previously pointed out, it would need several lectures. As for just one lecture, then it is only enough to briefly point out some of the praiseworthy manners and unique qualities he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) was given.

His Generosity (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam):

He (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) reached in the characteristic of generosity a peak which no one else was able to reach, (thus) attaining the pinnacle (in good manners) in which a person can humanly reach. From the success which Allah gave him is that He made his (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) generosity increase during (specific) blessed times.
Ibn 'Abbas (radiyAllaahu’anhu) says in the authentic hadith,
عن ابن عباس قال: ((كان رسول الله أجود الناس، وكان أجود ما يكون في رمضان حين يلقاه جبريل، وكان يلقاه في كل ليلة من رمضان فيدارسه القرآن، فَالَرسول   أجود بالخير من الريح المرسلة)).[5]

"The Messenger of Allah was the most generous of people. He was the most generous in Ramadan when Jibril (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to meet him – and he used to meet with him every night of Ramadan – and recite the Qur'an to him. The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) was more generous in giving charity than the unrestrained wind." [6]

He was “generous with himself” for the sake of Allah; his teeth broke, his face was cut, and blood poured from him (in battle) -- sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam. Sacrificing one's self is the greatest peak of generosity, and he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) also sacrificed (for the Ummah), using his (high) status. For example, he interceded on behalf of Mugheeth, the husband of Barirah. When she was freed from slavery and chose to leave her husband, he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) hinted that she stay with him (i.e. her husband), out of mercy for her husband, Mugheeth.
شفاعته لمغيث زوج بريرة رضي الله عنهما، لما عتقت واختارت فراقه أشار عليها أن تبقى في عصمته؛ رحمة منه بزوجها مغيث.

The most pertinent example regarding this is what he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) informed us regarding his intercession on behalf of the people who are standing (on the Day of Hashr, waiting for the Day of Judgment to start). (This task) will be refused by even the Uloo al-'Azim from the prophets, until he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) is asked, and he will reply, "I am for this."
عن نبيّنا قال: لكل نبي دعوة مستجابة، وإني ادّخرت دعوتي شفاعةً لأمتي يوم القيامة، وانها نائلة إن شاء الله وإنها نائلة ان شاء الله من لم لا يشرك بالله شيئا [7].
Abu Hurairah (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said that The Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said,
"Every Prophet was given an accepted du'aa, in which he supplicated and it was answered. I have left my (accepted) du'aa to be the intercession for my Ummah on the Day of Judgment."

He was also generous with what Allah gave him from wealth, he was never asked (by someone) for something of this world and he replied to them "no". A woman once came to Muhammad (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) with a woven cloak and she said, "I wove this myself for you." So he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) took it and wore it, for he was in need of it. Then a companion told him, "Give it to me, O Messenger of Allah." So the Prophet replied, "Yes (I will)." So he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) entered his house, (took off the cloak), folded it and sent it to him. Some of the companions told him (the man who asked for the cloak), "You did not do well! The Messenger of Allah wore it because he needed it and then you asked him for it knowing that he never refuses anything asked of him." He replied, "By Allah, I did not ask him for it so that I could wear it, I asked him for it so it could be my burial shroud." Sahl bin Sa'ad (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said, "And it was his burial shroud."
لقد جاءت إليه امرأة ببردة منسوجة فقالت: نسجتها بيدي؛ لأكسوكها فأخذها محتاجا إليها ولبسها. قال له رجل من الصحابة أكسنيها يا رسول الله، فقال : نعم، فدخل منزله فطواها، وبعث بها إليه، فقال له بعض الصحابة: ما أحسنت؛ لبسها رسول الله محتاجا إليها ثم سألته وعلمت أنه لا يرد سائلا. فقال: إني والله ما سألته لألبسها إنما سألته لتكون كفني. قال سهل بن سعد - رضي الله عنه - : فكانت كفنه.
This is just one of the many examples of him (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) living by these noble manners. Could anyone possibly be more generous than this? And could anyone be more compassionate than this?

Allah described the Ansar (the Prophet’s companions in Medinah) in His Noble Book as being characterized by compassion, saying

{وَيُؤْثِرُونَ عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌ}
"and [they] give them (emigrants) preference over themselves, even though they were in need of that [which they gave],"
(Surah al-Hashr, ayah 9)

The role model of this noble character which they were characterized by, and other noble characteristics, is the master of the sons of Adam (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam). Allah the Exalted says,

{لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ}
"Indeed in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad) you have a good example to follow,"
(Surah al-Ahzaab, ayah 21)

When he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) was returning from (the battle) of Hunayn, the bedouins surrounded him until they forced him into a thorny tree and his cloak was taken. The Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) then stood up and said, "Give me my cloak, for if I had as much cattle as the trees (here), I would divide it between you, and you would not find me a miser, or a liar, or a coward."
ولما رجع من حنين التف الأعراب يسألونه حتى اضطروه إلى سمرة فخطفت رداءه فوقف النبي وقال: ((أعطوني ردائي فلو كان لي عدد هذه العضاه نعما لقسمتها بينكم ثم لا تجدوني بخيلا ولا كذابا ولا جبانا)) .

He was generous to certain people so that he may make Islam appealing to them. Many times he would give someone who was new to Islam a lot of wealth without giving to those who had been Muslim for a long time. In the Battle of Hunayn he gave the leaders of Quraysh, amongst them Safwan ibn Umayyah, hundreds of camels. Imam Muslim (radiyAllaahu’anhu) reported in his Sahih that he (Safwan) said, "The Messenger of Allah gave me what he gave me (of camels), and he was the most hated person to me. He kept on giving me (camels) until he was the most beloved person to me."
ففي غزوة حنين أعطى أكابر قريشٍ المئاتِ من الإِبل، ومنهم صفوان بن أمية، فقد روى مسلم في صحيحه أنه قال: لقد أعطاني رسول الله ما أعطاني، وإنه لأبغض الناس إلىَّ، فما برح يعطيني حتى إنه مِنْ أحب الناس إليَّ.

Anas (radiyAllaahu’anhu), said, "The Messenger of Allah was not asked about Islam (by a person), except that he gave him something. A man came to him and he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) gave him enough sheep to fill the valley between two mountains. He returned to his people saying, 'O people, enter into Islam, for Muhammad gives like the one who does not fear poverty!' And a man would become Muslim, only desiring this worldly life, and before long Islam would become more beloved to him than the earth and everything in it."[8]
عن أنس رضي الله عنه قال: ((ما سئل رسول الله على الإِسلام شيئاً إلا أعطاه، ولقد جاءه رجل فأعطاه غنماً بين جبلين، فرجع إلى قومه فقال: يا قوم أسلموا فإن محمدًا يعطي عطاء من لا يخشى الفقر. وإن كان الرجل ليسلم ما يريد إلا الدنيا فما يلبث إلا يسيراً حتى يكون الإسلام أحب إليه من الدنيا وما عليها)).

The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) gave that man all that sheep, which, due to its large number, filled the space between two mountains, and what was the result of his (generous) giving? It was the goal which had caused him to give in the first place, which was for the man to become a caller of the Messenger of Allah (to Islam). He became, by his own will, a messenger for the Messenger of Allah to his people, calling them to Islam and showing them the generosity of the Messenger of Allah and telling them that he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) gives the way the one who does not fear poverty gives.

And that is how the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) would spend wealth: in the path of making Islam victorious, and in calling to it, and in making it appealing (to the non-Muslims). He spent the wealth which Allah gave him in the way of Allah, so that even when Allah took his soul, his armor was being held as collateral for his debt (out of his poverty) – peace be upon him!

His Humbleness and Closeness to the People:
No one amongst mankind acquired that which the Messenger of Allah did in terms of possessing all the excellent characteristics, and reaching the greatest peak (in excellence) in which one could humanly reach. He (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) was a parable to be drawn in human excellence; both before and after his being sent as a Messenger.

 Allah chose him to have exceptional qualities, and made him unique with specific qualities, in this life and the next, that made him excel over mankind. He made him the best of Messengers (and they are the best of mankind), and the last of them, and the leader of them, and the first to rise from the grave, the first to agree to intercede (on behalf of mankind on the Day of Judgment) and the first amongst them to be granted intercession.
He (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said, proclaiming the blessings of Allah upon him, and showing the Ummah his status with Allah so that they may know it and place him in a status deserving of him which is one of reverence, love and obedience,
Abu Hurairah (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said that The Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said,
“I am the leader of the children of Adam on the Day of Judgment, and the first to be risen from the grave, and the first to intercede, and the first to be granted intercession” reported by Muslim, Abu Dawood and others.
قال: ((أنا سيد ولد آدم يوم القيامة، وأول من ينشق عنه القبر، وأول شافع، وأول مشفع))

Even though he had all these unique qualities in which he reached a peak none from the Ulul-Azam – let alone anyone else from the Prophets – was able to reach, he was the most humble, the closest to the weak and poor, and the furthest from being arrogant and haughty. When he told his (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) Ummah about some of the qualities in which Allah specified him forز

Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said that The Prophet (salla Allahu aleihi wa sallam) said,
 “I am the leader of the children of Adam”, he added, making it clear that he was not boasting (and he is far from that), “and I am not boasting”. [9] 
((أنا سيد ولد آدم ولا فخر))
He told them about his status with Allah because there is no way his Ummah would know that except through him. He also told us since there will be no Prophet after him to tell us about his great status with Allah, just as he told his Ummah the virtues of the Prophets who came before him (peace be upon them all).
And when he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) was asked to chose between being a slave and messenger of Allah and being a Prophet and king – he chose the position of being a slave and messenger (reported by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad). Al-Bayhaqi reported that Anas (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said,

((دخل رسول الله مكة يوم الفتح وذقنه على راحلته متخشعاً)).
Anas bin Malik (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said,
The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) entered Makkah on the Day of Fath (with his head lowered so much so that) his chin was touching his riding animal – out of humbleness.”

وروى ابن إسحاق في السيرة: ((أن رسول الله ليضع رأسه؛ تواضعاً حين رأى ما أكرمه الله به من الفتح حتى أن عثنونه ليكاد يمس واسطة الرحل)) .
Ibn Ishaq reported (in his book) as-Seerah, “The Messenger of Allah lowered his head out of humbleness when he saw what Allah had bestowed upon him from the (Day of) Fath, to the point that his beard was almost touching the middle of his riding animal (out of humbleness).”

Ibn Kathir (rahimahullah) said, “This humbleness in such a situation, as he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) entered Makkah with such a large army, is the opposite of what the miserable of the Children of Isra’eel did when they were ordered to enter the gate of the Holy Land in rukoo’, saying, ‘hittaa (forgive us) (O’ Allah)’. Instead, they entered it dragging upon their bottoms, saying, ‘Barely in a hair’ (i.e. they refused to say what Allah told them and instead mockingly mumbled gibberish).
قال ابن كثير: ((وهذا التواضع في هذا الموطن عند دخوله مكة في مثل الجيش العرمرم بخلاف ما اعتمده سفهاء بني إسرائيل حين أمروا أن يدخلوا باب بيت المقدس وهم سجود ـ أي رُكَّع ـ يقولون: حطة، فدخلوا يزحفون على أستاتهم وهم يقولون: حنطة في شعرة)) .
Anas bin Malik (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said that “The (young) slave girl from amongst the slaves of Madinah would take the hand of the Messenger of Allah and take him with her wherever she pleased.” [10]
عن أنس رضي الله عنه قال: ((كانت الأمَةُ من إماء أهل المدينة لتأخذ بيد رسول الله فتنطلق به حيث شاءت)) . البخاري

Anas bin Malik (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said that a woman who had mental problems said, “O Messenger of Allah, I need you (to tell you something).” He replied, “O Mother of so-and-so, (take me with you on) any path you please so that I may see to your need.” So he stood on the side of one of the roads until she (talked to him about what she wanted to talk about) and was satisfied. [11]

عن أنس رضي الله عنه أن امرأة كان في عقلها شيء فقالت: يا رسول الله إن لي إليك حاجة. مسلم
Aswad (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said, “I asked Aisha about what the Prophet did when he was with his family.” She answered, “He was in the service of his family, and if the prayer was called he would go pray.” Al-Bukhari reported in his Sahih that Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, “If I was invited (to eat) the forearm or the foot (of a sheep), I would accept, and if someone gave me a gift of a forearm or the foot (of a sheep), I would accept it.” And If he passed by young boys he would greet them. [12]
Shu’ba bin Siyar (radiyAllaahu’anhu) narrated, “I was walking with Thabit al-Banani and he passed by some young boys and greeted them. [13]

Thabit (radiyAllaahu’anhu) narrated that he once was walking with Anas and he passed by some young boys and greeted them.

Anas (radiyAllaahu’anhu) narrated that he once was walking with the Messenger of Allah and he passed by some young boys and greeted them.

He (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to spend time with his companions and play with the young boys. Anas said, “The Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) would spend time with us, he would tease my younger brother, “O Abu Umayr, what did the nughayr (bird) do?” (Sahih al-Bukhari).
وكان يخالط أصحابه، ويداعب الصبي الصغير، يقول أنس - رضي الله عنه - فيما رواه عنه البخاري في الصحيح: إن كان النبي ليخالطنا حتى يقول لأخ لي صغير: ((يا أبا عمير ما فعل النغير؟)).
Anas (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said, “The Messenger (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) had the best manners amongst people. I had a young brother who they would call Abu Umayr – (Anas added:) ‘I think he was weaned at the time’ – and if he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) saw him he would say to him, ‘O’ Abu Umayr, what did the nughayr (Anas added: the nughayr which he used to play with) do?

 Anas (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said, “I served the Prophet for ten years and he never once told me ‘uff (ugh)’ or ‘why didn’t you do this or that?’ or ‘you should have done this or that.’” [14]
عن أنس رضي الله عنه قال: ((خدمت رسول الله عشر سنين فما قال لي: أف، ولا لم صنعت؟ ولا أصنعت؟)) .

He (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to ride (riding) animals and have his companions ride behind him. He used to guide and encourage his Ummah to beautify themselves with the characteristic of humbleness. Amongst what he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said regarding this is, “No one is humble for the sake of Allah except that Allah raises them high,” (Sahih Muslim).
 وكان يركب الدواب، ويردف بعض أصحابه وراءه عليها، وكان يرشد أمته إلى التحلي بصفة التواضع، ويرغبهم في التخلق بها. ومما قاله في ذلك: ((وما تواضع أحد لله إلا رفعه الله)) رواه مسلم.

He was the leader of the humble and their role model and Allah raised him to the highest ranks, raised his status and caused him be mentioned (amongst humanity) forever.

Even with all this humbleness and excellent manners which Allah bestowed upon His slave, Messenger and Khalil -- Muhammad -- his companions could not look at him directly out of awe and respect for him. ‘Amr bin al-‘As (radiyAllaahu’anhu) says, “There was no human more beloved to me than the Messenger of Allah nor greater in my eyes, but I could not look fully into his face out of my awe for him. And if someone asked me to describe him to them, I could not, because I never could look at him for long (out of awe and respect).”
يقول عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنه: ((وما كان أحد أحب إليَّ من رسول الله ولا أجل في عيني منه؛ وما كنت أطيق أن أملأ عيني منه، إجلالا له، ولو سئلت أن أصفه ما أطقت؛ لأني لم أكن أملأ عيني منه)) . مسلم

His Mercy, Gentleness and Compassion with His Ummah
By the mercy of Allah and His blessings upon him (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) he was merciful and gentle as Allah says, speaking about him (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam),

{فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِنَ اللَّهِ لِنْتَ لَهُمْ وَلَوْ كُنْتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانْفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ}
“So by mercy from Allah, [O Muhammad], you were lenient with them. And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you,”
(Surah Ali 'Imran, ayah 159).
No one from amongst mankind was characterized with mercy and gentleness the way the Messenger of Allah was – nor did anyone even come close. 

  • Abu Hurayrah (radiyAllaahu’anhu) narrated that a bedioun urinated on the side of the masjid, so the people gathered around him to attack him. The Messenger of Allah told them, “Leave him, and pour on the urine a big bucket of water, for you (i.e. the Muslim Ummah) were sent to make things easy, and you were not sent to make things difficult.” (Bukhari and others)
عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن أعرابيا بال في طائفة المسجد، فثار إليه الناس؛ ليقعوا فيه، فقال لهم رسول الله : ((دعوه واهريقوا على بوله ذنوبا من ماء أو سجلا من ماء؛ فإنما بعثتم ميسرين ولم تبعثوا معسرين)) أخرجه البخاري وغيره.

  • Abu Mas’ud (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said, “A man came to the Messenger and said, ‘I do not attend the Fajr prayer in jama’aa because so-and-so (the imam) prolongs the prayer.’” He (Abu Mas’ud) said, “I never saw the Messenger angrier than when he was reprimanding him (i.e. the imam who prolongs the prayer) that day.” He (Abi Mas’ud) said, “The Prophet said, ‘O’ People amongst you are people who drive others away, so whosoever of you leads the people in prayer, let (his prayer) be short, for amongst them is the elderly, the sick and those who have things to do.’ [15]
عَنْ أَبِي مَسْعُودٍ الأَنْصَارِيِّ ، قَالَ : جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ ، فَقَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنِّي لأَتَأَخَّرُ عَنْ صَلاةِ الْغَدَاةِ مِنْ أَجْلِ فُلانٍ مِمَّا يُطِيلُ بِنَا . قَالَ : فَمَا رَأَيْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَشَدَّ غَضَبًا فِي مَوْعِظَةٍ مِنْه يَوْمِئِذٍ، فَقَالَ : " يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ مِنْكُمْ مُنَفِّرِينَ فَمَنْ صَلَّى بِالنَّاسِ فَلْيُوجِزْ ، فَإِنَّ فِيهِمُ الضَّعِيفَ وَالْكَبِيرَ وَذَا الْحَاجَةِ".[16]

  • Abu Hurayrah (radiyAllaahu’anhu) narrated that the Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said, “If one of you leads in prayer, let him shorten (the prayer), for amongst (the congregation) is the weak, the sick and the elderly. And if one of you prays by himself, then let him prolong the prayer as much as he wishes.”
عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله قال: ((إذا صلى أحدكم فيخفف؛ فإن فيهم الضعيف، والسقيم، والكبير، وإذا صلى أحدكم لنفسه فَلْيُطَوِّل ما شاء)) .

·         Abu Qatada (radiyAllaahu’anhu) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam)said, “Indeed, I stand to pray wishing to prolong the prayer but I hear the cry of the child, so I shorten my prayer (since) I dislike to make things difficult for his mother.”
عن أبي قتادة رضي الله عنه عن النبي قال: ((إني لأقوم في الصلاة أريد أن أطوِّل فيها، فأسمع بكاء الصبي، فأَتَجَوَّزْ في صلاتي؛ كراهية أن أشق على أمه)) .

·         Anas (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said, "I did not pray a lighter and more complete prayer than that which I prayed behind the Prophet. He would hear the cry of the child and shorten his prayer, fearing that the child’s mother would become distracted.”
عن أنس رضي الله عنه قال: ما صليت وراء إمام قط أخف صلاة ولا أتم من النبي وإن كان ليسمع بكاء الصبي فيخفف؛ مخافة أن تفتن أمه.

·         Abu Qatada (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said, “The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) came to us with Umamah the daughter of Abi al-‘As on his shoulder. He prayed and when he made rukoo’ he would put her down and when he rose he would lift her back up.” He (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said, “If it was not for my fear (of burdening my Ummah) I would have ordered them to use the siwak before every prayer.” [17]
عن أبي قتادة رضي الله عنه قال: ((خرج علينا النبي وأمامة بنتُ العاص على عاتقه، فصلى فإذا ركع وضعها وإذا رفع رفعها)) .

·         And when he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) stood in prayer one night in Ramadan with his companions, he feared that it would become obligatory upon them and so he stopped praying (qiyam) with them.
وقال : ((لولا أن أشق على أمتي لأمرتهم بالسواك عند كل صلاة)) .

·         Aisha (radiyAllaahu’anha) narrated that "the Messenger (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) prayed in the masjid and the people prayed behind him. He then prayed the next day and more people prayed behind him. They gathered the third or fourth day but the Prophet did not come out (of his house) to them. The next morning he told them, ‘I saw what you did (the previous nights) and what stopped me from coming out to you was that it would have become obligatory upon you’ – and this was in Ramadan.” [18]
عن عائشة رضي الله عنها أن النبي صلى في المسجد، فصلى بصلاته ناس ثم صلى الثانية فكثر الناس، ثم اجتمعوا من الليلة الثالثة أو الرابعة فلم يخرج إليهم رسول الله فلما أصبح قال: ((رأيت الذي صنعتم فلم يمنعني من الخروج إليكم إلا أني خشيت أن تفترض عليكم وذلك في رمضان)) .

·         Aisha (radiyAllaahu’anha) narrated, “The Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) would leave off an act of worship that he liked to do in fear that the people would do it and it would become obligatory upon them. And when he fasted consecutively and the companions found out, they too began to fast consecutively. He then forbade them to do so, out of compassion for them. They said, ‘But you fast consecutively.’ He replied, ‘I am not like you.’[19]
عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: ((إن كان النبي لَيَدَعُ العمل وهو يحب أن يعمل به؛ خشية أن يعمل به الناس، فيفرض عليهم، ولما واصل في صيامه وعلم الصحابة رضوان الله عليهم ذلك واصلوا معه، فنهاهم عن الوصال؛ إشفاقا عليهم، قالوا: فإنك تواصل، قال: ((إني لست كهيئتكم)) .

·         Abu Hurayrah (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said, “The Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) forbade fasting consecutive days (without breaking his fast at night) so a man from amongst the Muslims said, ‘But you fast consecutively O Messenger of Allah.’ He replied, ‘Which of you is like me? During the night my Lord feeds me and gives me drink.’” And when they refused to stop fasting consecutively, he (too) fasted with them for one night, and then they sighted the moon (of Shawwal, i.e. Eid) and so he said, “If it (the new moon) had been delayed, I would have continued (fasting consecutively) with you." (He said this) as a punishment for them since they had refused to stop fasting consecutively. [20]
في الصحيحين عن أبي هريرة - رضي الله عنه - قال: نهى رسول الله عن الوصال في الصوم فقال له رجل من المسلمين: إنك تواصل يا رسول الله قال: ((وأيكم مثلي، إني أبيت يطعمني ربي ويسقيني)) .
فلما أبوا أن ينتهوا عن الوصال واصل بهم يوما، ثم رأوا الهلال فقال: ((لو تأخر لزدتكم)) كالتنكيل لهم حين أبوا أن ينتهوا.
فإنه نهاهم عن الوصال؛ رحمة بهم وشفقة عليهم فلما راجعوه في ذلك؛ رغبة منهم في موافقته واصل بهم وكان آخر الشهر يوما، ثم يوما، ثم رأوا الهلال وقال: لو تأخر لزدتكم كالتنكيل لهم حين أبوا أن ينتهوا.

·         He forbade them from fasting consecutively out of mercy and compassion. When they asked him again (regarding fasting consecutively) out of their eagerness to follow him, he fasted with them two consecutive days, then they saw the moon and he said, 'If it (the new moon) had been delayed, I would have continued (fasting consecutively) with you', (saying this) as a punishment for them since they had refused to stop fasting consecutively. This is a practical and prophetic lesson for the noble companions so that he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) could show them their (own) weakness and that fasting consecutively (without breaking the fast at night) is difficult for them and so that they may realize that for themselves.

This prophetic lesson is similar to a father who sees his son playing with fire and so the father keeps him away from the fire’s harm by taking his hand and gently putting his finger near the edge of one of the coals so that he may realize the fire’s great harm and be cautious of it and stays away from it. The son (realized this) because his father showed him the extent of its danger. 

  • Mu’awiyah bin al-Hakim as-Sulami (radiyAllaahu’anha) he did tashmeet[21] to a man who had sneezed during the prayer. The companions showed their disapproval of his action and so he said, “When he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) finished the prayer (he came and advised me about what I did). I never saw a teacher, before or after him, better than him in imparting a lesson. By Allah, he did not upset me, nor did he hit me, nor did he insult me.” He (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said to him, “It is not befitting to speak in the prayer. The prayer is for tasbih, takbir and the recitation of the Qur’an.” [22]
عن معاوية بن الحكم السلمي رضي الله عنه لما شمَّت وهو في الصلاة رجلا عطس ووجد من الصحابة إنكارا عليه قال: ((فلما صلى رسول الله بأبي هو وأمي ما رأيت معلما قبله ولا بعده أحسن تعليما منه؛ فوالله ما كهرني، ولا ضربني، ولا شتمني. قال: ((إن الصلاة لا يصلح فيها شيء من كلام الناس، إنما هو التسبيح والتكبير وقراءة القرآن)) .

  • And if it reached him that one of the companions had to be advised (about an issue they were mistaken in) he would say in a speech, “What is wrong with certain people who do such and such and what is wrong with some men from my Ummah who say such and such?” and so on, so that he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) would give justice to the one who did the wrong and warn others who did not yet fall into it.
 وكان إذا بلغه عن أحد من أصحابه ما يحتاج إلى تنيبه عليه قال في خطبته: ((ما بال قوم يفعلون كذا، وما بال رجال من أمتي يقولون : كذا)) .

His Clemency and Forbearance:
Just as he reached the peak in being merciful and compassionate, he also reached the peak in forgiveness, forbearance, clemency, patience and tolerance. His beautiful seerah (history) is full of examples of these characteristics of his. It is reported in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim that Jabir (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said, “We fought in a battle before Najd along with the Messenger of Allah and (upon returning) we found the Messenger of Allah in a valley full of thorny trees. The Messenger of Allah dismounted and took shelter under a tree and hung his sword on one of its branches.” He (Jabir) said, “The people dispersed in the valley, seeking the shade of the trees. (We had slept for a while when) Allah's Apostle called us (and we went to him to find a man sitting with him).

·         The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said, ‘A man came to me as I was sleeping and he took my sword. I woke up and found him standing over me with the sword in his hand. He said to me: Who can save you from me? I replied: Allah. He asked me again: Who can save you from me? And I replied: Allah. So he returned the sword (to its sheath) and now here he is sitting.’ (Jabir said:) The Messenger of Allah did not (even) punish him.” [23]
 عن جابر رضي الله عنه قال: ((غزونا مع رسول الله غزوة قبل نجد، فأدركنا رسول الله في واد كثير العضاه، فنزل رسول الله تحت شجرة فعلق سيفه بغصن من أغصانها.
قال: وتفرق الناس في الوادي يستظلون بالشجر، قال: فقال رسول الله : ((إن رجلا أتاني وأنا نائم، فأخذ السيف، فاستيقظت وهو قائم على رأسي، فلم أشعر إلا والسيف صلتا في يده، فقال لي: من يمنعك مني؟ قال: قلت: الله، ثم قال في الثانية: من يمنعك مني؟ قال: قلت: الله، فشام السيف فها هو ذا جالس لم يعرض له رسول الله )).

·         Aisha (radiyAllaahu’anha) said, “A group of Jews entered upon the Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) and said, 'As-Saam ‘alaykum’[24]. Aisha said: I understood (what they were saying) so I replied, ‘And upon you is poison and curses.’ The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said, ‘Calm down Aisha, indeed Allah loves gentleness to be in everything.’ I replied, ‘O Messenger of Allah, did you not hear what they said?’ He said, ‘(And) I replied back to them, ‘wa-alaykum (and with you).’ [25]
عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: ((دخل رهط من اليهود على رسول الله فقالوا: السام عليكم، قالت عائشة ففهمتها فقلت: وعليكم السام واللعنة. قالت: فقال رسول الله : ((مهلا يا عائشة؛ إن الله يحب الرفق في الأمر كله)). فقلت: يا رسول الله ألم تسمع ما قالوه؟ قال رسول الله : ((قد قلت: وعليكم)).

·         Aisha (radiyAllaahu’anha) said, “Whenever the Messenger of Allah was given the choice of one of two matters, he would choose the easier of the two, as long as it was not (something) sinful. But if it was (something) sinful, he was the furthest of people from it. The Messenger of Allah never took revenge for his own sake but (he did) only when Allah's boundaries (i.e. Laws) were transgressed, in which case he would take revenge for Allah's Sake.” [26]
عن عائشة ضي الله عنها قالت: ((ما خيّر رسول الله بين أمرين إلا أخذ أيسرهما، ما لم يكن إثما، فإن كان إثما كان أبعد الناس منه، وما انتقم رسول الله لنفسه إلا أن تنتهك حرمة الله فينتقم لله بها)) .
·         Anas (radiyAllaahu’anha) said, “I was walking with the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) and he was wearing a Najrani cloak that had a thick border. A bedouin met him and pulled him by his cloak so violently that I saw that the border of his cloak had made marks on the skin of the neck of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace be upon him). And he (the bedouin) said, ‘O’ Muhammad, command that I should be given out of the wealth of Allah which is at your disposal.’ The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) turned to him and smiled, and then ordered that he be given (wealth).” [27]
عن أنس رضي الله عنه قال: ((كنت أمشي مع رسول الله وعليه برد نجراني غليظ الحاشية، فأدركه أعرابي فجبذه بردائه جبذة شديدة، قال أنس: فنظرت إلى صفحة عنق النبي وقد أثَّرت بها حاشية الرداء من شدة جبذته، ثم قال: يا محمد مر لي من مال الله الذي عندك، فالتفت إليه فضحك ثم أمر له بعطاء)).


His Strength and Bravery
The Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said, “The strong believer is more beloved to Allah than the weak believer – and in both is good.” [29]

Allah gave His slave and messenger Muhammad all kinds of strength. He added to his (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) complete spiritual strength, physical strength. He (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) used this strength in the worship and obedience of Allah and in hastening to whatever will bring him closer to Allah and he is the role model for his Ummah in all things that are good.

  • Aisha (radiyAllaahu’anha) said, “When the Prophet prayed he would stand for so long that his feet would crack.” Aisha said, “O’ Messenger of Allah, you do all this (even though) Allah has forgiven all your past and future sins.” He replied, “O Aisha, should I not like to be a thankful slave?” [30]
عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: ((كان رسول الله إذا صلى قام حتى تفطر رجلاه)).
قالت عائشة: يا رسول الله أتصنع هذا وقد غفر الله لك ما تقدم من ذنبك وما تأخر فقال: ((يا عائشة أفلا أحب أن أكون عبدا شكورا؟)).

  • Ibn Abbas (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said, "The Messenger of Allah was the most generous of people. He was the most generous in Ramadan when Jibril (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to meet him and recite the Qur'an to him. The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) was more generous in giving charity than the unrestrained wind." [31]
عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال: ((كان رسول الله أجود الناس، وكان أجود ما يكون في رمضان حين يلقاه جبريل، وكان يلقاه في كل ليلة من رمضان فيدارسه القرآن، فلرسول الله أجود بالخير من الريح المرسلة)) .

  • Anas (radiyAllaahu’anhu) said, “The Messenger of Allah was the best, most generous, and bravest of people. One night the people of Madinah (heard a loud noise) and grew afraid so they headed towards the noise and (found) the Prophet facing them – he had beaten the people to (see what was) the noise – saying, 'Do not be afraid, do not be afraid.' He was riding the horse of Abi Talha, without a saddle and (hanging) around his neck was a sword. He said, 'I can see this horse is so fast and swift (out of his humbleness the prophet start praising the horse, and drawing the people’s attention to Allah’s mercy and miracle that he made this well known slow horse to move swiftly).'” [32]
  عن أنس رضي الله عنه قال: ((كان رسول الله أحسَنَ الناس، وأجودَ الناس، وأشجع الناس، ولقد فزع أهل المدينة ذات ليلة فانطلق الناس قبل الصوت فاستقبلهم النبي قد سبق الناس إلى الصوت وهو يقول: لم تراعوا، لم تراعوا، وهو على فرس لأبي طلحة عري ما عليه سرج، وفي عنقه سيف فقال: لقد وجدته بحرا أو إنه لبحر)).

  • He (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) used to be ahead of his companions in the army. His face was cut and his teeth were broken on the Day of Uhud. In the Battle of Hunain he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) stayed firm when many of those with him fled.

  • Al-Baraa’ bin ‘Aazib (radiyAllaahu’anhu) narrated that a man asked him, “O Abu 'Umara, did you flee from the Messenger of Allah on the day of (the battle) of Hunain?” He replied, "(Yes), however the Messenger of Allah did not flee. (The tribe of) Hawazin were archers, and when we came upon them and fought them, they were overtaken, and so the people went for the war booty. They (the enemy) approached us with their arrows, and so the people were overtaken. Indeed I saw the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) and Abu Sufyaan bin al-‘Haarith, and he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) was holding the reins of his white mule, saying, 'I am the Prophet, I do not lie, I am the son of Abdul Mutalib.'" [33]
وفي غزوة حنين ثبت رسول الله حين انهزم الكثير ممن معه، ففي الصحيحين عن البراء بن عازب - رضي الله عنه - أن رجلا قال له: ((يا أبا عمارة أفررتم عن رسول الله يوم حنين؟ فقال: لكن رسول الله لم يفر، إن هوازن كانوا قوما رماة، فلما لقيناهم وحملنا عليهم انهزموا فأقبل الناس على الغنائم، فاستقبلونا بالسهام فانهزم الناس فلقد رأيت رسول الله وأبو سفيان بن الحارث آخذ في لجام بغلته البيضاء وهو يقول: أنا النبي لا كذب أنا ابن عبد المطلب)) .

Imam Ibn Kathir (may Allah have mercy upon him) said in his Tafsir, commenting on this hadith, “I say: This is the peak of bravery – that on such a day in which his army left him, he stood fast. He was on a mule – which does not run fast nor is it fit for fleeing or running away – yet (despite the circumstances) he made it run towards them (i.e. the enemy), mentioning his name so that those who didn't know him would come to know him, forever, until the Day of Judgment. This was all due to his trust in Allah and his reliance upon Him and certainty that He will give him (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) victory and complete what He sent him (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) with, and that He will make His Religion manifest over all the other religions."
قال ابن كثير رحمه الله في تفسيره بعد سياق هذا الحديث: ((قلت وهذا في غاية من يكون من الشجاعة التامة أنه في مثل هذا اليوم في حومة الوغى، وقد انكشف عنه جيشه، وهو مع هذا على بغلة، وليست سريعة الجري، ولا تصلح لفر ولا كر ولا هرب، وهو مع هذا يركضها على وجوههم وينوه باسمه؛ ليعرف من لم يعرفه دائما إلى يوم الدين ـ، وما هذا كله إلا ثقة بالله، وتوكلا عليه، وعلما منه بأنه سينصره، ويتم ما أرسله له، ويظهر دينه على سائر الأديان)).


His Right upon His Ummah and His Ummah’s Right upon Him
I believe that it is relevant that I conclude this lecture – which covers examples of some of his (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) characteristics – by pointing out his main rights upon his Ummah and his Ummah’s rights upon him. I say:
From amongst his rights upon his Ummah – and their abiding by this right is their key to happiness – is for them to bear witness that he is the true messenger of Allah, sent to jinn and mankind and that his Shariah (law) stands until the Day of Judgment, and that it is meant for everyone and there is no room for anyone to turn away from it.

  • Abu Hurayrah (radiyAllaahu’anhu) narrated that the Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said, “By He in whose hands is my soul, no one hears of me from this Ummah – be it a Jew or Christian – and dies without believing in what I have been sent with, except that he is from the people of the fire.” [34]
عن أبي هريرة رضي الله عنه عن النبي أنه قال: ((والذي نفس محمدٍ بيده لا يسمع به أحدٌ من هذه الأمة يهودي ولا نصراني، ثم يموت ولم يؤمن بالذي أرسلت به إلا كان من أصحاب النار)).

Amongst his rights upon his Ummah is to believe that his Shariah is fit for every time and place, and that there is no happiness in this life, nor safety from the (trials) of the Last Day, except for those who take his path and follow his methodology. And (to also believe) that he is the role model for his Ummah and that he is the truthful and the one who is believed in, in regards to what he informed of the unseen and of the past and future. (And amongst his rights) is that the hearts should be filled with love for him – love greater than one’s love for himself, his parents, his children and everyone else.
And from loving him is loving his Shariah and honoring it and ruling by it, and turning to it and ruling by its verdict (in times of dispute), as Allah said,

{قُلْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ}
“Say, [O Muhammad], 'If you should love Allah, then follow me, [so] Allah will love you and forgive you your sins,'”
(Surah Ali 'Imran, ayah 31).

(From loving him is also to) single out Allah alone in worship and (worship Him) upon the guidelines which the Messenger of Allah drew out. For Allah is not to be worshipped except by that which He legislated, as he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said in the authentic hadith,
((من عمل عملاً ليس عليه أمرنا فهو رد)).
“Whoever does (an act of worship) which is not according to our way, then it is rejected.”
And how perfect is the statement of Abi Uthman Al-Niysaburi, in which he said,
وما أحسن قول أبي عثمان النيسابوري إذ يقول: ((من أمّر السنة على نفسه قولا وفعلا نطق بالحكمة، ومن أمّر الهوى على نفسه نطق بالبدعة)) .
“Whosoever makes the Sunnah his guide, through his words and actions, utters wisdom. And whosoever makes his desire his guide, through his words and actions, utters innovations.”

Shaykh al-Islam Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahab summarized this matter in a concise phrase, when he wrote in his book, “Clarification of the Meaning of the Testimony That Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah”, “(Testifying that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah entails)

((طاعته فيما أمر، وتصديقه فيما أخبر، واجتناب ما نهى عنه وزجر، وألا يعبد الله إلا بما شرع)).
obeying him in what he commanded, believing in what he informed us of, avoiding what he forbade and warned from and not to worship Allah except in a way that he legislated.”
And from his rights upon his Ummah is for our tongues to be moist with his (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) praise, praise that is befitting of him, being careful not to go to extremes (in praising him), since that is not pleasing to Allah or His Prophet. Amongst his rights also is to praise his Sunnah and make its beauty known and make clear the importance of the people’s adherence to the Sunnah. Also amongst his rights is to keep the tongue moistened with sending praise and peace upon him and blessings upon his family, companions and those who follow him in good. The true miser is the one whom, when the Messenger is mentioned in front of him, he does not send his praise upon him. The prophet has said, “May his nose be rubbed in dust” about the one whom the Prophet is mentioned in front of him (yet) he does not send his praise upon him. And more miserly than the one who is miserly with his money is the one who is miserly with sending praise upon the Prophet when he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) is mentioned.
May Allah’s complete praise and blessings be upon him and his family and companions and those who follow them in good, until the Day of Judgment.
As for the Ummah’s right upon him (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam), it is that he conveys to them the Message of their Lord and guides them to that which will give them happiness in this life and the next.
Allah says,
{وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ}
“And there is not upon the Messenger except the [responsibility of] clear conveyance [of the Message],”
(Surah an-Nur, ayah 54).
{فَهَلْ عَلَى الرُّسُلِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ}
“So is there upon the messengers except [the duty of] clear conveyance [of the Message]?”
(Surah an-Nahl, ayah 35).
Imam Al-Bukhari narrated in his Sahih that Ibn Shihab Az-Zuhri (may Allah have mercy upon him) said, “The Message is from Allah, and it is upon the Messenger to convey it, and it is upon us to submit to it.”
روى البخاري في صحيحه عن ابن شهاب الزهري رحمه الله أنه قال: ((من الله الرسالة، وعلى الرسول البلاغ، وعلينا التسليم)) انتهى.

Allah has favored the believers by sending His Noble Messenger and he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) conveyed the Message in the most complete manner. Allah revealed to him (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) towards the end of his life, in the Farewell Pilgrimage,
{الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا}
“This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion,”
(Surah al-Ma'idah, ayah 3).

 And he (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam) said in his lecture in the Farewell Pilgrimage, 
وقال في خطبته في حجة الوداع: ((وقد تركت فيكم ما لن تضلوا بعده إن اعتصمتم به؛ كتاب الله، وأنتم تسألون عني فماذا أنتم قائلون؟)). قالوا نشهد أنك قد بلغت، وأديت، ونصحت.

"And I have left for you something which if you hold to, you will never be misguided after it; the Book of Allah. You will be asked about me (i.e. if I conveyed the message), so what will you say?" They said, "We testify that you have conveyed and fulfilled (the Message), and gave sincere advice."
فقال بأصبعه السبابة يرفعها إلى السماء وينكتها إلى الناس: ((اللهم اشهد اللهم اشهد ثلاث مرات)) رواه مسلم.
He said, raising his index finger to the sky and lowering it to the people, "O Allah bear witness, O Allah bear witness," three times.
Reported by Muslim.

So what is from Allah is the Message, and what is upon the Messenger is to convey the Message – and both were accomplished in the most complete manner. As for what is upon the Ummah of submission – than the happy one is he who is blessed in that (i.e. submission) through his speech, actions and belief. And the wretched, rejected one is he who does the opposite.

I ask Allah the Most Generous, the Lord of the Great Throne, to give us all the success in achieving the manners of this noble Prophet (sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam), to favor us with the success of following his footsteps, to allow us to die upon his Sunnah, to resurrect us amongst his group and to make us from the victorious ones who gain his intercession. For indeed, He is the Guardian of this, the One Able to do it. And there is no movement nor strength except with Allah.

Our Lord, accept from us, for you are the All-Hearing, the Most-Knowledgeable. O Allaah, send peace upon Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad, just as You sent peace upon Ibraheem and upon the followers of Ibraheem. Verily, You are full of praise and majesty. O Allaah, send blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, just as You sent blessings upon Ibraheem and upon the family of Ibraheem. Verily, You are full of praise and majesty.

We ask Allah, subhanahu wa ta'ala, to make us of those who know and comprehend, and of those who comply and submit. Aameen.
And We ask Allah tala for sincerity in our words and actions and that he forgives us our past sins and grants us steadfastness and a good ending of our life.

Wa salla allahu ala Muhammad wa ala alayhi wa sahbihi wa sallam, wa Al-Hamdu lilahi rabbi al-Alameen.

We ask Allah, subhanahu wa ta'ala, to make us of those who know and comprehend, and of those who comply and submit. Aameen.
And We ask Allah tala for sincerity in our words and actions and that he forgives us our past sins and grants us steadfastness and a good ending of our life.

Wa salla allahu ala Muhammad wa ala alayhi wa sahbihi wa sallam, wa Al-Hamdu lilahi rabbi al-Alameen.

[1] The Testimony of the Non-Muslims of Quraysh Regarding His (SAAWS) Truthfulness can be found in notes of “And [always] speak the truth” part two April 10th, 2010.
[2] Mujahid, as-Sudee, ar-Rabi' bin Anas, ad-Dahak and others (may Allah be pleased with them all) gave the same meaning. Al-Hasan gave the meaning of "excellent moral character" to mean "the manners of the Qur'an".
[3] Sahih Bukhari and Muslim and others.
[4] Authentic hadeeth.
[5]  صحيح الإمام البخاري رحمه الله في (بدء الوحي إلى رسول الله ).
[7]  رواها الإمام مسلم في صحيحه
[8] Imam Muslim.
[9] At-Tirmidhee, Ibn Majah and Imam Ahmad narrated this hadith from the authority of Abi Sa’eed (may Allah be pleased with them) and it was reported by Ibn Majah. At-Tirmidhee said, “The hadith is verified to be hasan sahih”.
[10] It is reported in Sahih al-Bukhari.
[11] It is reported in Sahih Muslim.
[12] It is reported in Sahih al-Bukhari.
[13] It is reported in Sahih Muslim.
[14]  It is reported in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim
[15] It is reported in Sahih Bukhari.
[17] All of these ahadith are in Sahih Bukhari.
[18] It is reported in Sahih al-Bukhari and Muslim.
[19] It is reported in Sahih al-Bukhari and Muslim.
[20] It is reported in Sahih al-Bukhari and Muslim.
[21]Translator’s note: Tashmeet  means to reply to someone who sneezed with the words “yarham ka-Allah/May Allah have mercy upon you”.
[22] Sahih Muslim.
[23] It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim.
[24]Translator’s note: ‘As-saam alaykum’ sounds like ‘asalamu alaykum’ but actually ‘as-saam’ means poison. So instead of saying ‘Peace be upon you’ to the Prophet, they were saying, ‘Poison be upon you.’ 
[25] It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim.
[26] It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim.
[27] Narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim.
[28] His Sincerity in Calling to the Religion of Allah can be found in notes of “And [always] speak the truth” part two April 10th, 2010.
[29] Narrated in Sahih Muslim.
[30] Narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim.
[31] Narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim.
[32] Adab Mufrad, by Imam al-Bukhari, V. 1. Chapter # 125 goodness of heart, hadeeth # 232. Authenticated by al-Albani rahimahu Allah. Also Narrated in Sahih Muslim
[33] Narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim.
[34] Narrated in Sahih Muslim.


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