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In the name of Allah
Assalamu aleikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu
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JazakAllahu khair

Why is the witness of one man considered to be equal to the witness of two women?

Why is the witness of two women considered to be equal to the testimony of one man?

Praise be to Allaah.
What is meant by witness or testimony is something by which the thing testified may be proven and known to be true and correct, so it is information about it.  With regard to the witness of two women being equal to the testimony of one man. Allaah has mentioned the wisdom behind specifying the number of two as being that a woman may forget or get confused, so the other woman can remind her, as He said: 
“…And get two witnesses out of your own men. And if there are not two men (available), then a man and two women, such as you agree for witnesses, so that if one of them (two women) errs, the other can remind her…”
[al-Baqarah 2:282 – interpretation of the meaning] 
With regard to the phrase, “that if one of them (two women) errs”, Ibn Katheer said: “This means, the two women, if one of them forgets the testimony, then ‘the other can remind her’, i.e., she can remind her about the matter concerning which testimony is being given.” (Tafseer Ibn Katheer, part 1, p. 724) 
Allaah has commanded the testimony of two women so as to be sure that they remember, because the mind and memory of two women takes the place of the mind and memory of one man. (See I’laam al-Muwaqqa’een, part 1, p. 75). 
This does not mean that a woman does not understand or that she cannot remember things, but she is weaker than man in these aspects – usually. Scientific and specialized studies have shown that men’s minds are more perfect than those of women, and reality and experience bear witness to that. The books of knowledge are the best witness to that; the knowledge which has been transmitted by men and the ahaadeeth which have been memorized by men far outnumber those which have come via women. 
This has to do with gender, i.e., the gender of men is more perfect than the gender of women. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): 
“Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allaah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend (to support them) from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient (to Allaah and to their husbands), and guard in the husband’s absence what Allaah orders them to guard (e.g. their chastity and their husband’s property)”
[al-Nisaa’ 4:34] 
Nevertheless, there are some women who are far superior to men in their reason and insight, but they are few, and the ruling is based on the majority and the usual cases. 
A woman may compensate for her weaknesses by striving hard, and surpass men when they are negligent. Hence we find that in some colleges, female students surpass male students because of their greater efforts and their keenness to succeed when many of the male students are negligent and are not eager to learn. A man may also excel over a woman in some fields that are basically hers, so we find that some of the most skilled chefs, tailors, cosmeticians and obstetricians on the international level are men. The point is that usually – and no wise person would dispute this – most of the prominent people in the religious sciences, such as fiqh, hadeeth, tafseer, ‘aqeedah and preaching, and in the worldly sciences such as medicine, astronomy, engineering, physics, chemistry, etc. are men. 
If we think about the western societies in which men and women are regarded as equal in all aspects, we will find that despite that men still prevail. Still, Allaah has given women pre-eminence and has favoured them over men in some aspects, such as caring for children, and showing patience, love and compassion towards them, and managing the home. Hence the sharee’ah gives custody to them, for the mother is the first school, from which the future men, leaders of the world and scholars of the ummah graduate. What virtue can be greater than this?
Islam encourages special care for the mother and her children, and enjoins upon children to honour their mother, treat her kindly and give her preferential treatment above the father. It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah said: “A man said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, who among the people is most deserving of my good companionship?’ He said, Your mother, then your mother, then your mother, then your father, then those who are closest in order of closeness.’”(Narrated by Muslim, 2548). What greater honour can there be than this? 
So let everyone work in his or her field of specialization. Men should not interfere in pregnancy and breastfeeding, and women should not be involved in jihad, fighting the enemy, or holding the positions of khaleefah or ruler. Whatever is permitted to both of them should be done within the guidelines of sharee’ah, such as not allowing free mixing of the sexes and not neglecting other duties such as those of husbands and wives. 
And Allaah is the Source of strength.
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

Seerah- Life of the Prophet- lesson 21- teacher Yumna- 2nd May, 2014

In the name of Allah
Main Points:
1-The foundation of the new society

The Islamic nation or Ummah is not a group of people whose aim is to live in any manner and head in any direction so long as they have enough food and amusement. Muslims ,on the contrary possess an ideology which defines their relationship with Allah clarifies their vision of life,organizes their affair internally according to specific patterns and leads their external connections towards definite goals. There is a great difference between a person who says to you :"My only concern in this world is to live my life, and another who says "If I do not protect my honour, safeguard my rights, please Allah and defend His cause, then may my legs not carry me and my eyes not guide me."
But both Muhajirin and Ansar had the desire to be guided by Revelation, gain the pleasure of Allah and realize the ultimate goal, for which humans were created and life was established.
From this point of view the Messenger of Allah immediately after settling down in Madinah, turned his attention to the laying of those foundations which were necessary for the fulfillment of his mission. The basic priorities were as follows:
(1)The relationship of the Ummah with Allah
(2)The relationship of the members of the Ummah with one and another,and
(3)The relationship of the Ummah with non-Muslims.
The Brotherhood
It was brotherhood in which the word "I" was nonexistent, and individuals moved with the spirit, interests and hopes of the groups, unable to see themselves as separate entities detached from it. This brotherhood meant that the racial prejudice of Jahilya should dissolve, that only for Islam one should show enthusiasm. The prophet (pbuh) made this brotherhood into a contact to be executed, not a mere word and deed linked to blood and wealth, not mere greeting muttered by the tongue and having no effect.
The feeling of beneficence and love were an integral part of this brotherhood and they filled the new society with the most wonderful examples. Al- Bukhari narrated :"When they arrived at Madinah the Messenger of Allah (pbuh)united Abdul Rahman Ibn Auf and Sa'ad Ibn Al Rabi in brotherhood."
Sa'ad said to abdul Rahman : I am the most wealthy of Ansar and I shall spilt my wealth into two halves for you.I have two wives so see which of them is more pleasing to you: name her and I shall divorce her, and when her period is over you can marry her."
Abdul Rahman said :" May Allah bless you as regards your family and wealth.Where is your market place ? "So they returned only to show that he had acquired some cheese and butter! Then he went out the next day , and one day he came back wearing various adornment.
Then the prophet(pbuh) asked:"what is this?"
He replied:"I got married"
The prophet asked:' How much did you give her?"
He replied:" A nugget of gold"
One's amazement at Sa'ad generosity cannot be equaled except by one's amazement at Abdul-Rahman 's nobility. He competed with the jews in their own market and within few days he was able to earn enough to safeguard his chastity and to get married. Lofty determination is a characteristics of faith.

Seerah- Life of the Prophet- lesson 20- teacher Yumna- 25th April, 2014

In the name of Allah

1-Arrival at Madinah.
      When the people of Yathrib heard that the Prophet (pbuh) had left Mecca and was on his way to their city, they anxiously awaited his arrival. Each morning they would go to the edge of the city to see if he were coming. Finally, on Monday, September 27, in the year 622 A.D., someone saw him in the distance and shouted to everyone, ’Here is Muhammad! (pbuh) the Messenger of Allah has arrived!’ All the Muslims went out to greet him, shouting, .Allahu Akbar.! Allah is Great! Muhammad the Messenger of Allah has arrived!’ The women and children sang songs to show how glad they were to see him. The Prophet (pbuh) entered the city with his friend Abu Bakr. Most of The people there had not seen him before and as they gathered around they did not know which of the two was the Prophet (pbuh), until Abu Bakr got up to shield him with his cloak from the burning sun. Yathrib would now be called al-Medina, which means, The City.

        How strange are the contrasts in life and the difference among people! The one whom Makkah sought but failed to kill is warmly received be Madinah, and its citizens offer him protection, arms and numerous supporters. One noteworthy point was that most of the people of Madinah had never seen the prophet (Pbuh) before. So when he arrived they could not at first distinguish him from Abu Bakr .

          The prophet (Pbuh) stayed as the guest of Banu Amir Ibn Auf for fourteen nights, during which he laid the foundations for the Quba Mosque, the first mosque ever to be built in Islam.
       The Messenger of God (pbuh) stayed in Quba’, which is a place at the entrance of Medina. On the first Friday after his arrival the Prophet led the congregation in prayer. After this many of the wealthiest men invited him to come and live with them and share their riches. But he refused and, pointing to his she-camel, Qaswa’, said, ’Let her go her way’, because he knew that his camel was under Allah’s command and would guide him to the spot where he should stay.

        They let the camel go until she finally knelt down beside a house belonging to the Bani an-Najjar, the tribe to whom the Prophet’s mother was related. This house was used as a drying-place for dates and belonged to two young orphan boys named Sahl and Suhayl. They offered to give it to the Prophet (pbuh) but he insisted on paying them for it, and so their guardian, As.ad the son of Zurarah, who was present, made the necessary arrangements. The Prophet (pbuh) ordered that a mosque and a place for him to live be built on the site. All the Muslims worked together to finish it quickly even the Prophet (pbuh) joined in. It was here that the Muslims would pray and meet to make important decisions and plans. The building was quite plain and simple. The floor was beaten earth and the roof of palm leaves was held up by tree trunks. Two Stones marked the direction of prayer. At first worshippers faced Jerusalem, but Soon after the direction of prayer was changed towards the Ka.bah in Mecca.
       After the building of the mosque, the Prophet (pbuh) wanted to strengthen the relationship between the people called the Muhajirah or
Emigrants, who had left Mecca with him, and the people of Medina, who were known as the Ansar, or Helpers. Each man from Medinah took as his brother a man from Mecca, sharing everything with him and treating him as a member of his own family. This was the beginning of the Islamic brotherhood. In the early days of Islam, the times for prayer were not announced and So the Muslims would come to the mosque and wait for the prayer so as not to miss it. The Prophet (pbuh) wondered how to tell the people that it was time for prayers. He discussed it with his friends, and at first two ideas were put forward; that of blowing a horn as the Jews did, and that of using a wooden clapper like the Christians.

     Then a man called .Abd Allah ibn Zayd came to the Prophet (pbuh) and told him he had had a dream in which he had seen a man dressed all in green, holding a wooden clapper. He had said to the man, ’Would you sell me your clapper in order to call the people to prayer?’ The man had replied, ’A better way to call the people to prayer is to Say: "Allahu Akbar, Allah is Most Great!" four times, followed by "I bear witness that there is no divinity but Allah, I bear witness that Muhammad is the
Messenger of Allah, Come to prayer, come to prayer, Come to salvation, come to salvation. Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar! There is no divinity but Allah!"’

      When the Prophet (pbuh) heard this, he said it was a true vision from Allah. He sent for Bilal, who had a beautiful, strong voice, and ordered him to call the people to prayer in just this way. Bilal did so and soon after ’Umar came out of his house and told the Prophet (pbuh) that he had seen exactly the same vision himself.

     The Prophet (pbuh) replied, ’Allah be praised for that.’ The adhan, or call to prayer, which came to ’Abd Allah ibn Zayd in his dream and was performed by Bilal on the instruction of the Prophet (pbuh), is the one we still hear today being called from the minarets of mosques all over the world.

Seerah- Life of the Prophet- lesson 19 - teacher Yumna- 28th February, 2014

In The Name Of Allah

Main Points:
          1-Hijrah (mass immigration) of prophet Muhammed (PBUH).

     The success of Islam in founding a homeland of its own in the middle of a desert surging with disbelief and ignorance was its greatest gain since it began to be propagated. The Muslims called to one another from every corner: Come to Yathrib! The Hijrah was not only an escape from persecution and ridicule, it was in fact a movement to establish a new society in a safe country. It became the duty of all able Muslims to assist in building of this new homeland and to put their utmost efforts into fortifying it and raising its status among other nations. Leaving Madinah after migration to it became a shirking of responsibility and a betrayal of Allah and His Messenger (PBUH) for life. In it was part of faith, since the establishment of the faith depended upon the development  of Madina
     The Breaking of All Connections with One’s Home, for the Sake of Allah Alone. After his companions had left for Yathrib, the Prophet (pbuh) stayed in Mecca, waiting for permission from Allah to leave the city. Abu Bakr and Ali stayed with him. There were also some Muslims whom Quraysh had not allowed to leave. Abu Bakr kept asking the Prophet (pbuh) to allow him to go to Yathrib, but the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) kept saying, ’Do not be in a hurry; it might be that Allah will give you a travelling companion.’ The leaders of Quraysh assembled in the house of their ancestor, Qusayy, as was customary when they had an important decision to make. They had to find a way of getting rid of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), before he was able to join his friends in Yathrib. As they were busy arguing, the Devil appeared at the door in the form of a noble and handsome old man. When they saw this elderly gentleman standing there, they asked him who he was. He said he was a Shaikh from the mountains who had heard what they meant to do and thought he might be able to help or advise them. They thought he looked like a wise man, so they invited him in. Each leader then started to put forward ideas about what should be done, but none of them could agree about which was best, until AbuJahl told them his plan. This was that each clan should provide a strong, young warrior, each of whom would be given a sword. All the young warriors would then wait outside the Prophet’s house and together attack him as he came out. In this way they would be rid of him but as the blame for killing him would fall on all the clans, the Prophet’s family would not be able to seek revenge.
Before the night fell, on which Muhammad (pbuh) was to be killed, the Archangel Gabriel came to him and said, ’Do not sleep tonight in your own bed.’ The Prophet (pbuh) understood what was going to happen, so he told .Ali to lie in his bed and wrap himself in the blanket that the
Prophet (pbuh) normally used, promising that no harm would befall him. With the coming of darkness the young men of Quraysh had gathered outside the Prophet’s house, waiting for him to come out. After he had made sure that ’Ali was safe, the Prophet (pbuh) left the house. At that very moment Allah took away the sight of the warriors so that they could not see the Prophet (pbuh), who took a handful of dust, sprinkled it on their heads and recited these verses:

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
.Ya Sin By the Wise Qur’an, Thou art truly among those sent On the straight path; A Revelation of the All-mighty, the All-wise, That thou may warn a people whose fathers were never warned, so they are heedless. The Word has already proved true of most of them, yet they do not believe. Lo! We have put on their necks collars of iron up to the chin, so that they are made stiff-necked. and We have put before them a barrier; and We have covered them so they do not see..(Qur’an 36.1-9)
The young men waited the whole night and were furious when, in the morning, they saw .Ali instead of the Prophet (pbuh) coming out of the house. I they realized that their plan had failed completely. In the meantime, the Prophet (pbuh) went to Abu Bakr’s house and told him,
’Allah has told me that now is the time for us to leave Mecca.’ ’Together?’ asked Abu Bakr. ’Together’, the Prophet (pbuh) replied. Abu Bakr wept for joy, because now he knew that the travelling companion he had been promised was the Prophet (pbuh) himself.

Then he said,’O Messenger of Allah, these are the two camels which I have kept ready for this.’ And so, the two of them left for a cave in Thawr, a mountain to the south of Mecca where they intended to hide.
When they were out of the city the Prophet (pbuh) looked back and said, ’Of all Allah’s earth, you are the dearest place to Allah and to me and if my people had not driven me out I would never have left you.’
When Quraysh found out that the Prophet (pbuh) and his companion had gone, they set out after them, searching in every direction. Three days later they finally reached the cave where the Prophet (pbuh) and Abu Bakr were hiding, but a strange and wonderful thing had happened. A spider had woven its web right across the entrance to the cave and a dove was nesting with her mate nearby. As the Meccans stood in front of the cave, with only the spider’s web separating them from the fugitives, Abu
Bakr began to fear for their safety. He whispered to the Prophet (pbuh), they are very close. If one of them turns we will be seen.’ But he was comforted by the Prophet’s reply: .What do you think of two who have with them Allah as their third? ’Grieve not, for verily Allah is with us..
(Qur’an 9.40) .

After a few moments the search parry decided that no one could have entered the cave recently, or the spider’s web would not have been complete and the dove would not have nested there, and so they left without searching inside. Three days later the Prophet (pbuh) and Abu
Bakr thought it safe to leave the cave. Abu Bakr’s son, ’Amir, had arranged for three camels and a guide to help them continue their journey to Yathrib. ’Amir would ride behind his father. The leaders of Quraysh, meanwhile, returned to Mecca and offered a reward of one hundred camels to whoever captured the Prophet (pbuh). Among those who went in search of him was a famous warrior. He was, in fact, the only one to catch up with him, but whenever he came close, his horse would suddenly sink up to its knees in the sand. When this had happened three times, he understood that the Prophet (pbuh) was protected by a power stronger than anything he had known, and so he went back to Mecca. On arriving there he warned everyone against continuing the search, relating what had happened to him.

If you do not help him, still Allah has helped him already, When the unbelievers drove him forth, (he second of two, When the two were in the
Cave, when he said to his companion, "Grieve not; surely Allah is with us." Then Allah caused His peace and Reassurance to descend upon him,
And helped him with hosts you cannot see, And He made the word of the unbelievers the lowest; While Allah’s word is the uppermost; Allah is Almighty, All-wise.. (Qur’an 9.40)

The Prophet’s journey from Mecca is called the hijrah, or migration. It was really the first step towards the spread of Islam throughout the entire world, and Muslims begin their calendar from the year of the hijrah