Henna on the hair- what shall I do with wudu ?

In the name of Allah
Assalamu aleikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu
If a man or woman put henna on their head and put a wrapper of paper or plastic over it, is it acceptable to wipe over that wrapper that has been placed over the henna? Is wiping over part of it acceptable or is it essential to wipe over all of that wrapper? Can that be compared with wiping over the head cover, because it is difficult to remove it? If a person prays after wiping over that wrapper, is his prayer valid or not, and does he have to repeat it?

Praise be to Allaah.

If a man or woman needs to apply henna to the head, then the time for prayer comes and he or she wants to pray without removing the henna, it is permissible to wipe over the henna in wudoo’ but not in ghusl, because wiping over the head is not a strict issue, and the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) wiped over his head cover and over his head when he had applied gum or honey to hold his hair together (mulabbad).

The same applies if they have put a wrapper of paper and the like over it; they may wipe over it and it is sufficient to wipe over most of the wrapper; it is not essential to wipe over the entire head.

But it is not appropriate to put the wrapper on so as to be able to wipe over it.

Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al-‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The scholars differed as to whether it is permissible for a woman to wipe over her head cover.

Some of them said that it is not acceptable because Allah, may He be exalted, enjoined wiping the head when He said (interpretation of the meaning): “rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads” [al-Maa’idah 5:6]. If the woman wipes over the head cover, then she has not wiped over her head; rather she has wiped over a barrier, namely the head cover, so it is not permissible.

Others said that it is permissible, and they drew an analogy between the (woman’s) head cover and the man’s head cover, so the woman’s head cover is like the man’s, and the difficulty (of removing it) is present in both cases.

Whatever the case, if there is any difficulty involved either because the weather is cold or because it is difficult to do it and wrap it again, then there is nothing wrong with taking a lenient approach in such matters, otherwise it is better not to wipe over the head, as there are no saheeh texts that speak of that.

If the hair is stuck together with henna, gum or honey, or the like, then it is permissible to wipe over it, because it is proven that when the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) was in ihram, he struck his head together with a sticky substance (an action called talbeed), and what is put on the head in the case of talbeed comes under the same rulings as the head.

This indicates that there is some lenience with regard to the matter of wiping the head.

Based on that, if a woman has applied henna to her head and stuck her hair together with it, it is permissible for her to wipe over it, and there is no need for her to undo her hair and wash off the henna. The same applies if she has fastened jewellery to her head. It is permissible for her to wipe over it, because if we say it is permissible to wipe over the head cover, this is more appropriate.

It may be said that there is a basis for that in the ring, because the Messenger (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) used to wear a ring yet he did not make the water go between the ring and the skin, so in such matters there may be some shar‘i lenience, especially since the principle with regard to the head is not to purify it by washing but by wiping.

The man’s head cover, the khuff (leather slipper that covers the ankle) and the woman’s head cover can only be wiped over when purifying oneself from minor impurity (i.e., in wudoo’), not major impurity (i.e., ghusl). The evidence for that the hadeeth of Safwaan ibn ‘Assaal, who said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to command us, if we were travelling, not to take off our khufoof for three days and nights, except in the case of janaabah, but not in the case of stools, urine or sleep.

The words “except in the case of janaabah” refer to major impurity.

“but not in the case of stools, urine or sleep” refer to minor impurity. If a person becomes junub during the period in which it is permissible for him to wipe over the khufoof etc, he should not wipe over them; rather he has to do ghusl, because in the case of major impurity there is nothing that can be wiped overexcept a plaster cast.

End quote from ash-Sharh al-Mumti‘ ‘ala Zaad al-Mustaqni‘, 1/239-242

See also the answer to question no. 142695

And Allah knows best.

Fiqh Lesson by teacher Umm Ahmad ( 23rd April, 2013 ) : A Excerpt Dealing with 40 Commmon Mistakes in Salaat

A Excerpt Dealing with 40 Commmon Mistakes in Salaat

Saalih Ibn Abdul-Azeez Ibn Muhammad Aalish-Shaykh (hafithahullah)
Abdul-Qaadir Abdul-Khaaliq – Translator
© 1998 Al-Haramain Foundation

Mistakes of Salaah

1. Leaving the salaah altogether. This is indeed kufr (disbelief) and the evidence is found within the Qur’aan the authentic sunnah and the consensus of the ummah. Allah ta’aala states: If they repent and establish the salaah and give the zakaah, they are you brothers in faith (deen). [Al-Qur’aan 9:11] And Allah ta’aala says: What landed you in As-Saqar (Hell)? They said: We were not of those who made salaah (al-
musalleen)…[Al-Qur’aan 76:42-43] and so on. As far as the sunnah: The hadeeth of
Jaabir that the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Between a man and shirk
(what protects him from shirk) is the abandonment of salaah. [Muslim] It is narrated by Abu Dawood, An-Nisaa’i, Ibn Maajah, and At-Tirmidhi on the authority of Buraidah Ibn Al-Husaib from the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) who said: The covenant between us and them (i.e. the Prophet – and/or his successors -and those who claim to be Muslims) is the salaah so whosoever abandons it has disbelieved.
Ahmad and others and it is saheeh] As far as consensus (al-ijmaa’): Abdullah Ibn
Shaqeeq (radiallahu ‘anhu) stated: The Companions of Muhammad (radiallahu ‘anhum) did not view the abandonment of any other deed as kufr other than (abandoning) salaah.[At-Tirmidhi and others with an authentic chain]

2. Delaying the salaah from its appointed time. This is a violation according to the word of Allah ta’aala: Verily the salaah has been appointed for the believers at specific times (mawqoot). [Al-Qur’aan 4:103] Al-Mawqoot indicates a specific appointed time and the postponement of sallah beyond the obligatory time (fardh) is a major sin and Allah is the one upon Whom we depend. On the authority of Anas who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying: This is the salaat of the hypocrite (munaafiq); when he sits observing the sun until it is between the horns of Shaitaan, then he stands to perform four (rak’ah) remembering Allah little. [Muslim]

3. Abandonment of the congregational prayer in the masjid by able men either regularly or on occasion. The commandment has been given to perform the salaah in congregation in the masaajid. Congregational (al-jamaa’ah) salaah is a duty except for those who have a valid excuse according to the sharia’h. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Whoever hears the call (al-adhaan) and thereafter does not answer it (i.e. attend the congregational salaah) there is no salaah for him except for a valid excuse. [Reported by Ibn Maajah and others with a strong chain (isnaad) and Al-Haafith Ibn Hajar said “Its chain is according to the conditions of Muslim”].

Allah ta’aala also says:
And bow down with those who bow down. {Al-Qur’aan 2:43] In a hadeeth in Al-
Bukhaari and Muslim (mutafaqun ‘alaih): …I would then leave (after tbe salaah has
begun) and go to those men who do not attend the salaah and burn their houses
down over them.

4. Lack of tranquility (at-tama’neenah) within the salaat. This is generally done out of
ignorance and it is an open sin because tranquility is a pillar (rukn) of the salaah without which the salaah is incorrect. The hadeeth about the man who performed his salaah badly is a clear evidence for this. The meaning of tama’neenah (tranquility) is that the one praying is tranquil in the rukoo’ (bending), standing (‘itidaal), prostration (sujood), and sitting between the two prostrations (juloos), and he should get in position where every bone settles into place, he should not hasten between portions of the prayer until he has attained tranquility in it and gives each its due time. The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said to the one who was rushing through his salaah without observing the proper tranquility: Go back and make salaah because you have not made the salaah. And in the hadeeth of Rifaa’ah on the story of the one who prayed badly it goes on: Then he makes takbeer and bows and puts his hands on his knees until each joint is settled and relaxed. Then he says ‘sami’allahu liman hamida’ (Allah hears the one who praises Him) then stands up straight until each bone is in its place.

Its origin is in the two saheehs and Al-Bukhaari has another like it narrated by Anas. The one who forgets or the one who is ignorant is excused.

7. Standing to complete a missed rak’ah before the imaam has completely finished making the second tasleem (i.e closing the prayer by saying ‘As-salaamu ‘alaikum wa
rahmatullahi to the right and left). It is reported in Saheeh Muslim that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Do not precede me in the rukoo’ (bowing) not in the sujood (prostration) nor in going out of the prayer (al-insiraaf). The scholars have said that the meaning of al-insiraaf is at-tasleem and it is named such because the praying person may leave afterwards and he leaves only after the second tasleem. The one who precedes the imaam should stay in his place until the imaam has completed his salaah,then he should stand and complete whatever he missed, and Allah knows best.

8. Making the intention for prayer aloud. This is a bid’ah (innovation), and we have
previously mention the prohibition against bid’ah. The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa
sallam) never made the intention for salaah aloud. Ibn Al-Qayyim, rahimahullah, stated in “Zaad Al-Ma’aad” or in “Al-Hudaa An-Nabawiyy”: “When the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would stand for salaah he said: ‘Allahu Akbar’ and said nothing else before it nor did he pronounce his intention aloud. Nor did he say: ‘I will pray for Allah salaah such and such while facing the Qiblah four raka’aat as imaam or follower’. Nor did he say: ‘Fulfilling it on time, not making it up, nor the time of fardh’ all ten of which are bid’ah for which no one has reported that he did with an authentic chain, nor even a weak one, nor musnad,nor mursal, nor a single word. Indeed not one narration of the sahaabah or the best of the following generation (taabi’een), nor the four imaams.”

9. Not reciting Al-Faatihah in the salaah; The recitation of Al-Faatihah is a pillar (rukn) and the salaah of whoever does not recite it is void. This is according to the Prophet’s (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying: Whoever makes a salaah wherein Al-Faatihah is not recited then it is khidaaj (miscarried) - and he repeated it three times –incomplete. [Muslim from Abu Hurairah]

Also reported in the two saheehs is the hadeeth from ‘Ubaadah Ibn Saamit (radiallahu ‘anhu) marfoo’an (attributable to the Prophet,sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam):
 The salaah is null for whoever has not recited the Opening of the Book. In another wording from ‘Ubaadah: Could it be that you recite behind your imaam? We said: Yes. He said: Don’t do so except with the Opening of the Book (Al-Faatihah) for the salaah is null of whoever does not recite it. [Ahmed, Abu Dawood, At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Hibbaan.

11. Raising the eyes to the sky during salaat or looking to the right and left without due cause. As far as raising the eyes, it is forbidden and bears the threat of punishment. It is narrated by Jabir Ibn Samurah (radiallahu ‘anhu) who said: The Messenger of allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Let the people stop raising their eyes to the sky in the salaah or let their sight not return to them. [Muslim]

12. As far as looking around unnecessarily, it is a deficiency in the salaah of the worshipper as long as he has not turned his entire body in another direction [i.e. away from the Qiblah]. If however the entire body is turned then the salaah is invalidated. It is narrated by ‘Aisha (radiallahu ‘anhaa) who said: I asked the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) about looking around in the salaah. He said: It is misappropriation pilfered by Shaitaan from the salaah of the worshipper. [Al-Bukhaari]. At-Tirmidhi also collected an authentic hadeeth: Be warned of turning or looking around in the salaahbecause it is destruction. And there are other ahadeeth on looking around in the salaah.

13. Sitting on one’s haunches (Al-Iq’aa) during the salaah and prostrating with the elbows (Al-Iftiraash) on the ground. Al-Iqaa’ is forbidden as related by Abu Hurairah (radiallahu ‘anhu) who said: My dear friend forbade me three things: He forbade me from pecking like a rooster [just touching the head in prostration – trans], sitting on the haunches like a dog, and looking around like a fox. Transmitted by Ahmed and others and its isnaad (chain) has by graded hasan (good) by Al-Mundhiri and Al-Haithami. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) forbade a man from spreading his arms on the ground like a beast of prey. Summarizing a hadeeth collected by Muslim from ‘Aisha (radiallahu ‘anhaa) as well as by At-Tirmidhi, Ahmed and others from Jaabir (radiallahu ‘anhu) marfoo’an (attributable to the Prophet): If any of you prostrates(sajdah) then keep straight and not spread his arms like the sitting of a dog.

14. Wearing a thin (see-through) garment that does not sufficiently cover the ‘auwrah (private area). This is an invalidator of the salaah because covering one’s ‘auwrah is a condition for a sound salaah. The man’s ‘aurah is - according to what is most authentic – from the navel to the knee. Likewise he must cover his shoulders or one of them 1 in accordance with the statement of Allah: O children of Aadam wear you adornments to every masjid. [Al-‘Araaf 31] It is sufficient to wear a single garment to cover the ‘auwrah according to what is narrated from ‘Umar Ibn Salamah (radiallahu ‘anhu): He saw the Messenger of allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam praying in a single garment (thowub) in the house of Umm Salamah, he had cast both ends over himself. [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim] Ibn Qudaamah (rahimahullah) stated: It is obligatory to cover sufficiently to hide the colorof the skin, for if it is thin enough that the color of the skin may be seen from behind to the extent that the whiteness or redness of the skin is percieved thane salaah in it is not allowed in that covering has not been achieved.

15. A woman not covering her head with the khimaar in salaah and not covering her feet. The ‘aurah of the swoman in the sallah is her entire body with the exception of her face. Nor is there any harm if she covers her face due to the passing by of men or the like. It is obligatory for her to wear a khimaar which is a head covering that also covers the bosom. This according to his (slallahu ‘aliahi wa sallam) statement: Allah does not accept thesalaah of the menstruating female unless she is wearing a khimaar. [Collected by Ahmed and the collectors of the six most authentic books except An-Nisaa’i and it has be authenticated by Ibn Khuzaimah and others. It is also obligatory that she cover the tops of her feet in compliance with the hadeeth “The entire woman is ‘auwrah” Collected by At-Tirmidhee with an authentic isnaad. Along this same meaning is what is transmitted by Malik and abu Dawood and others from Muhammad Ibn Said Inb Qunfudh from his mother who asked Umm Salamah (radiallahu ‘anhaa), the wife of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), about what garment a woman should pray in. She answered: She 1The evidence for covering the shoulders is found in an authentic hadeeth in the collection of Abu Dawood, however we were unable to determine why the shaykh exempts one shoulder.
 should pray in a khimaar and a full, loose-fitting chemise that conceals the tops of her feet. Also with this meaning is the hadeeth of Umm Salamah: Lower it by an arms length.

16. Walking in front of the praying person whether they be the imaam or praying alone and stepping over the people during the Jumua’h khutbah. It is a sin upon the person who passes in front of someone who is praying. If the one praying has no sutrah then it shold be estimated to be at the place of prostration so the passerby should can pass beyond that point. As narrated in the collections of al-Bukhari and Muslim by Abu Juhaim Ibn Haarith (radiallahu ‘anhu), who said: The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: If the one who passes in front of the praying person knew how serious a sin it was for him to do so it would have been better for him to wait for forty than walk in front of him. [Forty may refer to forty days, months or years, and Allah knows best – Trans.]
through his being late for the salaah according to the statement of Al-Mustafah (sallallahu‘alaihi wa sallam): Sit for you have caused harm and come late. [Ahmed and others. Cutting between the people is forbidden. One who enters the masjid should sit where there is space unless he sees a genuinely open area where he should then go to it and sit.

17. Not saying the takbeeratul-ihraam (opening takbeer) when entering upon the
congregation while the imaam is in rukoo’. This is a major mistake in that the takbeeratul-ihraam is a pillar (rukn) of the salaah that must be done by the one praying when standing for the salaah and then afterwards join the imam in the bowing position (rukoo’). To make the takbeer (al-ihraam) and then another takbeer before giong into rukoo’ is more complete and thorough. Abu Hurairah (radiallahu ‘anhu) narrated: The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) would make takbeer when he stood for the sallah and would then make takbeer upon bowing.

18. Not following the imaam (by getting in the same position) when coming late and the imaam is sitting or in sujood (prostrating). It is most preferred and most sure for the one who enters the masjid that he join the imaam in whatever position he may be in, whether he be in sajdah or otherwise. It is reported by abu Dawood and others with a saheeh isnaad that the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: If you come to the salaah and we are making sujood then you also make sujood. For a worshipper to delay making sajdah is to have in effect prevented himself from an act of worship which Allah loves. Ali Ibn Abi Talib and Mua’dh ibn Jabal (radiallahu ‘anhumaa) both stated: The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: If one of you comes to the salaah and the imaam is in a position then do what the imaam is doing. This is collected by At-Tirmidhi with a weak isnaad however it is in agreement with the preceeding hadeeth. It is also strengthened by a narration collected by Abu Dawood from Mua’dh (radiallahu ‘anhu): I never saw him (the imaam) in a position except I was also upon it. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: Verily Mua’dh has performed an act that is good for you too, so do likewise.

19. Busying oneself with matters that take one away from the salaah. This is evidence of preference of the wordly life over that of the Hereafter, following vain desires and being too busy to obey Allah. This is indeed ruination and of evil consequence to whoever does it. Allah ta’aala says: O you who believe, let not yuor wealth or your children divert you from the remembrance of Allah for whyosoever does that will be among the losers. [Al-Munafiqoon 9] And He says in praise of the believers: Men who are not diverted by business or trade from the remembrance of Allah and performance of salaah. [An-Noor 37] Preoccupation with any act over the salaah or that leads to being negligant or lazy toward it such as staying up too lateand the like, is not permissible. This is because anything that leads to what is haraam is itself haraam, and Allah is the One who guides to the right path.

20. Playing with one’s clothing or watch or the like. This is an act that negates khushoo’. The evidence for khushoo’ has been presented previously in point 5 [see August Issue – Ed.]. The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) forbade rubbing pebbles during the salaah due to its negative effect on khushoo’ when he said: If any of you performs the prayer let him not rub pebbles for mercy is turned towards him. [Ahmed and the six collections of hadeeth with an authentic isnaad] A person might increase playing around to the point of excessive movement that is outside of the salaah and thereby nullify it.

“Most correct is that if keeping the eyes open has no detrimental effect upon khushoo’
then it is preferable to do it. If decorations, adornments or the like are around the
worshipper or between him and the qiblah to the point of distraction, then there is
absolutely no objection to closing the eyes. Indeed the statement that to do so is
desirable (mustahabb) in this case is closer to the spirit of the law and its aims than the statement that it is objectionable. And Allah knows best.”

22. Eating or drinking or laughing in the salaah thus nullifying it. As far as eating and drinking there is consensus with regards to the fardh. Ibn Al-Mundhir stated: "The scholars (Ahlul- ‘Ilm) are in consensus agreement that the one praying is forbidden from eating and drinking. There is also consensus among them that to do so intentionally necessitates repetition of the salaah." Ibn Al-Mundhir also transmits that there is consensus that the salaah is nullified by laughing.

24. Crowding in on those who are praying. This is a type of forbidden inflicting of harm. It is upon the praying person to pray in a place where the space ends unless he sees an opening sufficient for him to pass and then there is no harm. However, to cause harm, especially on Yaum Al-Jumu’ah (Friday), is generally forbidden. The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said about those who cut the prayer line: Sit, for you have harmed and come late.

25. Not making the lines straight. Allah has ordered the proper performance of salaah saying "And establish (aqeemu) the salaah". The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) has likewise stated: Straighten your lines for verily straightening of the lines is a part of correct performance of salaah (iqaamis-salaah). Al-Bukhaari and Muslim from Anas. Also Al- Bukhaari narrates from An-Nu’maan Ibn Basheer (radiallahu ‘anhu): Straighten your lines or Allah will cause opposition between your hearts. The order to straighten the lines and taking care to do so is mentioned in a number of hadeeth. (It should also be mention that this includes not leaving any gaps in the lines as is all too commonly neglected – Ed.)

26. Raising the feet from the ground in sujood. This is against what is commanded as it is confirmed in the two saheehs from Ibn Abbaas (radiallahu ‘anhu): The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) was ordered to prostrate upon seven limbs and not to tuck up the hair or the clothes: the forehead (including the nose), the (palms of the) two hands, the knees and the two feet. So the one praying is commanded to pray with the two feet touching the ground and the complete form of this is to have the toes pointing toward the Qiblah. Part of each foot should touch the ground and if one raises either of them his sajdah (prostration) is incorrect if he continues to do so throughout the prostration.

27. Putting the right hand upon the left and raising them to the neck. This is in contradiction to the sunnah because the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) used to put his right hand over his left upon his chest. This is in a hadeeth of Hasan from several weak transmissions in themselves but that in conjunction strengthen themselves. The sunnah is also to place the hands on the middle of the chest or upon the heart because the heart is in the chest as Allah ta’aala states: It is the hearts within the breasts that are blind. Raising the hands (making takbeer) when going into sujood or when rising out of it. It is an error to lift the hands to the neck and this opposes the sunnah. What is attributed to Ali (radiallahu ‘anhu) in the explanation of the verse: So therefore pray to your Rabb and sacrifice (wanhar – in which the verb is construed as referring to the neck [an-nahr] –Ed.) is weak and does not constitute a proof. (Also incorrect is the incorrect practice of holding one’s hands upon or below the navel as there is no substantiated proof from the authenticated sunnah for this practice – Ed)

28. Raising the hands at the time of sujood or when rising out of sujood. This is in opposition to the well-known sunnah that has been transmitted by most of the companions who narrated about raising the hands. The student of (sharee'ah) knowledge should stick with the well-known sunnah unless in privacy though he may believe a deed to be more correct from the sunnah that nonetheless contradicts the practice of the generality of the scholars. The imaam of the people should do what is known, for what is commonly and well-known to be the sunnah upon which the majority of the scholars' practice, is sufficient and satisfactory. (The wisdom here is that for a student to insist upon public practice of that which is not regarded by the scholars generally as the sunnah may lead to harm and confusion which would amount to forsaking a fardh, i.e. the prevention of harm, for the sake of a establishing a sunnah - and one which is not totally agreed upon at that – and would thus fall into error. The scholars do not generally unite upon any practice without evidence, although the qualified student may disagree a given ruling or conclusion based
upon his understanding of the texts and after sincere and thorough study and reaching a state of being personally satisfied with its outcome. – Ed.)

28. Hastiness of some imaams in the salaah and lack of tranquility within it, thus not allowing time for the followers to be tranquil in their salaah or time to recite Al-Faatihah, especially in the last rak’ah. The imam is responsible for making the quality of the salaah good because he is being followed. It is therefore his duty to take care of following the Sunnah, and tranquility is a pillar (rukn) that the imam is more obliged to take care of due to his being followed. Likewise, the recitation of Al-Faatihah is a rukn that the followers in the salaah must be given enough time to fulfill. We have already presented the evidence for the obligation of maintaining tranquility (tama’neenah) and reciting Al-Faatihah.

29. Not taking care to make sujood upon the seven ‘limbs’ (i.e. the forehead along with the nose, the palms of both hands, both knees, and the toes of both feet). Abbaas Ibn Abul- Muttalib (radiallahu ‘anhu) reported that he heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu‘alaihi wa sallam) saying: If the slave prostrates, then seven body parts should prostrate with him: His face, hands, two knees, and his two feet. Related by Muslim, also attributed to Al-Majd in “Al-Muntaqaa”, Al-Muzzee and related by others.Ibn Abbaas (radiallahu ‘anhumaa) narrated: The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: I have been ordered to prostrate upon seven “bones” (i.e. body parts): Upon the forehead –and he pointed to his nose – both hands, both knees and both feet.
There are some people who do not prostrate upon both the forehead and the nose or who raise their feet or who do not touch the palms of their hands on the ground, all of which is in opposition to what is commanded.

30. Not caring to learn the rules of salaah. This is other than what any Muslim should do. No doubt salaah is the greatest of the Islamic pillars requiring bodily action. Allah commands its performance - “Aqimis-Salaah” (Perform the salaah) - in more than seventy ayaat. It is not possible to perform it without having knowledge of its fundamentals or knowing how the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) did the salaah. There is no room for ignorance of the rules of salaah, knowing its prerequisites or its essential parts, obligations, the rules for following or making up for errors and the like. It is fardh to know these matters and the absence of knowledge of these matters is a cause of a Muslim being unaware of what nullifies or spoils his salaah, and Allah is the Guide and Provider of Success.

 31 – 34. Carelessness in reciting Al-Faatihah and with proper pronunciation such as saying al-‘Aalimeen instead of al-‘Aalameen, ahdinaa instead of ihdinaa, an’amtu instead of an’amta,and so on. All of these and similar errors are the type of linguistic errors that must be avoided and no one who leads the salaat should commit them. Some may contain impossible meanings such as when one pronounces the “t” (taa’) in “an’amta” as “da” (daad) and thus the salaat would be spoiled.

35. Cracking the knuckles in salaah. This is from the detested actions in the salaah and is thus forbidden. As far as cracking the knuckles in general, Ibn Abi Shaibah narrates in a statement with good isnaad, from Shu’bah Mawlaa ibn Abbaas as stating: I prayed next to Ibn Abbaas and I cracked my knuckles so when I finished my salaah he said, “May you lose your mother! You crack your knuckles while you are in salaah?” Forbiddance of cracking the knuckles is transmitted in a marfoo’ hadeeth from Ali in the collection of Ibn Maajah, however,it is weak (da’eef)and not sufficient in an of itself (ghairu munjabir).

36. Intertwining the fingers (at-tashbeek) during and before the salaah. This is also among the detestable matters. Ka’ab Ibn ‘Ujrah (radiallahu ‘anhu) narrates: I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying: If one of you makes wudhoo then goes to the masjid for salaah, let him not clasp his hands together for indeed he is in the salaah. Ahmed, Abu Dawood, At-Tirmidhi. With some difference regarding its chain, Ad- Daarimi, Al-Haakim and others transmit from Abu Hurairah in a marfoo’ hadeeth: “If one of  you makes wudhoo in his house then comes to the masjid, he is in salaah until he returns. Therefore do not do not do like this – and he clasped his fingers together.”There are other mutually supporting hadeeths on this matter of tashbeek.

37. Putting forward someone to lead the salaah as imaam when it is not his place to do so and there are others more deserving present. This contradicts the intended purpose of having an imaam (al-imaamah), which is to be an example to follow (al-iqditaa’). It is necessary that the imaam have understanding of the deen and is able to correctly recite the Qur’aan according to the satatement of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam): The imaam of a people should be the one who best recites the Qur’aan…) Transmitted by Muslim from Abu Mas’ood Al-Ansaari (radiallahu ‘anhu). The scholars have ruled that one should not be put forward as imaam whose recitation is not good, or who openly displays sinfulness, or who has an undignified appearance, or who is an innovator, or who is corrupt or like them. If however, such people are put forward, the salaah of the followers is correct.

38. Improper recitation of the Qur’aan. This is an open deficiency and the right of the Qur’aan is that it be read correctly without aberration and that the Muslim strives to improve and excel in its recitation. Allah ta'alaa states: Recite the Qur’aan with tarteel [correct measured tone] and When we teach you the Qur’aan, follow its recitation. Meaning, recitation as is proper according to the Arabic language, with clarity and free from distortion. On this same line is the superiority of the one who purifies his intention as is narrated by ‘Kaisha (radiallahu ‘anhaa) who said: The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said, “The one who is proficient with the Qur’aan will be with the scribes (angels) honorable and obedient. While the
one who recites the Qur’aan haltingly and finds difficulty (while striving to recite it properly) gets a double reward.” [matafaqun ‘alaih]

39. Some men praying behind women in the Haram (The Grand Masjid) of Makkah. Doing so there or elsewhere is a detestable action in the salaah. It is from the sunnah that the rows of the women are behind those of the men. The salaah of a man behind a women may be a cause of him losing all khushoo’ and a disturbance in the salaat through his looking (at the woman) or otherwise. A man should therefore never line up for salaah behind a woman. This is not detestable if due to necessity such as not missing the ‘Eid salaah, or Salaatul-Jumu’ah,or the congregational salaah and other similar situations (i.e. that make it impossible to join the front rows with the men – Trans.). A group of scholars have stated: “The Haram of Makkah is an exception.” Shaykh Abdul-Aziz Ibn Baz (may Allah preserve him) is of this opinion.

40. Women coming to the masjid beautified or made-up and perfumed. This is one of the open and witnessed evils that become apparent during Ramadhan and outside it. The woman is coming out to worship her Master, not to show off the beauty of her clothing! Perhaps men may see her and she would then be sinful and she would suffer a loss of reward for her deed.The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) stated: “Let not any woman who is scented attend the ‘Ishaa with us.” [Muslim] Imam Ahmed transmits along with Abu Dawood with an authentic chain from Abu Hurairah (radiallahu ‘anhu) that the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “Do not forbid the bondwomen of Allah from the houses of Allah, and let them go out tafilaat.” The meaning of the word “tafilaat” is: Not beautified with adornments or perfumed.

Arabic Grammar ( Sarf ) by teacher Mariem, 19th April, 2013

Assalamu alaykom wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu dear sisters,

1- 19th April, 2013 was our 5th lesson

2 - We studied pages 20 to 22
We studied the conjugations of Madhee and Mudhari' .

First, please review what we studied last time.
Then, please do your homework on the homework sent through email.

I would like you to send me your homeworks (session 5 homework) within 4 days (Thursday max) so that I can have enough time to correct them, in sha Allah, and jazakAllahu khayran.

If anyone has a question she can e-mail it to me anytime, or just wait till we meet in the next session in sha Allah to ask it. 
PS: if you feel that you still find conjugation a bit tough, please never give up, we will work on it more in sha Allah, you are not supposed to make this homework 100 per cent correct (I wish you do anyway, and you can in sha Allah :) ) but we will practice more in the next class in sha Allah.
4 - Next lesson ( 26th April , Every Friday 9pm Egypt time / 3pm EST / 7pm GMT)
in sha Allah we will work more on Madhee and Mudhari' conjugations due to their importance in the science of Sarf; pp: 22-24
We'll quick review from page 20 - 22 before giving any new page , correct the homework and plan to stop on page 24 in sha Allah.

May Allah increase us in knowledge that is of benefit, ameen.

Conversational Arabic 21th of April, 2013 by teacher Islam

In the name of Allah
Assalamu aleikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu

 مَرْحَباً سارَة, هذِهِ أَنا عائِشَة. كَيْفَ حالُكِ اليَوْمْ ؟

– Hello, Sarah. This is Aisha. How are you today?
Marhaban sarah hathehe ana aisha kayfa halukel yawm? 

 أَهْلاً عائِشَة. أَنا بِخَيْرْ لَكِنْ مُتْعَبَة قَليلاً ؟

Hello, Aisha. I’m fine but a little tired.
Ahlan aisha ana bekhayr laken mut'aba kaleelan.

 دَعينا نَذْهَبْ إلى السّينَما وَنُشاِهدْ ذَلِكَ الفيلمْ الجَديدْ. إنَّهُ يَبْدَأْ في السّاعةِ السّابِعَة وَالنِّصْفْ

– Let’s go to the cinema and watch that new film tonight. It starts at half past seven.
Dae'ena nathhab elasenama wa nushahed thalekal filmel jaded. Ennahu yabda' fesa'ates sabe'a wannesf.

 أَنا لَسْتُ متأكدة فيما إِذا كُنْتُ أَسْتَطيعُ هذا المَساءْ .يَجِبُ أَنْ أَعْمَلَ حَتَّى السَّاعَة السّادِسَة وَبَعْدَ ذَلِكَ يَجِبُ أَنْ أَسْتَيْقِظَ مُبَكّراً لِلْعَمَلْ صَباح َالغَدْ.

– I’m not sure if I can this evening. I must work until 6 o’clock and then get up early for work tomorrow morning.
Ana lastu muta'akeda fema etha kuntu astate'u hathal masa' yajebu an a'mala hatas sa'as sadesa wa ba'da thaleka yajebu an astayketha mubakeran lela'amal sabaha ghad.

بِالنِّسْبَةِ لي إِنَّهُ مُتَأَخِّرْ. أَسْتَيْقِظُ في السّاعةِ السّادِسّة وِالنِّصْفْ وَأَنا دائِماً مُتْعَبَة في الصَّباحْ . وَغَداً الخَميسْ وَعَلَيَّ أَنْ أَعْمَلَ حَتّى السّاعَةِ السّابِعَة .

For me it is. I get up at 6.30 and I’m always tired in the morning. In addition, tomorrow is Thursday and I must work until 7 o’clock.
Benesbate le ennahu muta'akher astaykethu fes sa'ates sadesa wanesf wa ana dae'man muta'ba fes sabah wa ghadanel khamees wa a'alayya an a'amala hattas sa'as sabe'a.


Health insurance and the ruling on working in the insurance department of the hospital

Question : Is working as a doctor in the insurance department of a private hospital, in which my role is limited to sending medical reports on the patient who needs tests or surgery to the insurance department to get approval from the insurance company to go ahead with these procedures, halaal or haraam? I hope that you can explain.

Praise be to Allaah.

Commercial insurance of all types is haraam, whether it is life insurance, health insurance or insurance of one’s property. But it is permissible to deal with it in two cases:

1. When a person is forced to do so, such as if he is forced to take out insurance on his car or a company forces its employees to take out health insurance. In that case the sin is on the one who forces people to do that.

2. When a person is compelled to take out health insurance or he is in great need of it because he is not able to cover the cost of treatment from his pocket without having insurance. This is a need which makes it permissible to deal with health insurance according to a number of scholars, because the reason for the prohibition on this insurance is the ambiguity and the element of gambling, not riba. When it is like that, it is permissible in the case of need.

The nature of the ambiguity is that the individual pays money but does not know whether his benefiting from medical services will be equal to that or more or less.

Some types of insurance are based on both ambiguity and riba, such as life insurance, where the individual pays instalments and does not know how many they will be, in return for a known sum of money that is more than he paid.

Among those who are of the view that health insurance is permissible in the case of need are: Dr. ‘Ali Muhiy al-Deen al-Qurrah Daaghi, Dr. ‘Abd al-Rahmaan ibn Saalih al-Atran, Dr. Yoosuf al-Shubayli and Dr. Khaalid al-Du‘ayji.

Among the statements of the scholars that what is forbidden because of ambiguity is permissible in cases of need are the words of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him):

The same applies to ambiguous transactions, which are a kind of gambling, but some types may be permissible in the case of need and where it serves a clear interest.

End quote from Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa, 14/471

And he (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

Ambiguous transactions are forbidden because they are a kind of gambling which may lead to consuming people’s wealth unlawfully. But if that is countered by a greater harm, that makes it permissible so as to ward off the greater of two evils by putting up with the lesser. And Allah knows best.

End quote from Majmoo‘ al-Fataawa, 29/483

He also said: The evils caused by ambiguous transactions are less than those caused by riba, therefore a concession is granted when there is a need, if the prohibition on ambiguous transactions may cause greater harm than the transaction itself. Examples include sales of property, even if you do not know what is inside the walls or foundations, and sales of pregnant or suckling animals, even if you do not know the size of the embryo or the amount of milk, and even though it is forbidden to sell what is in the uterus on its own or the milk on its own (separate from the animal), according to most scholars. Another example is selling crops after it is clear that they are going to be good (although there cannot be absolute certainty), which is permissible according to the Sunnah. The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) allowed the buyer of date palms that had been pollinated to stipulate that they should bear fruit, so he bought crops before there was any sign that they would be good, but that was on the basis of buying the origin (i.e., the trees). Thus it becomes clear that in cases of mild ambiguity (when the ambiguity pertains to that which is secondary to the original item) it is permitted to do what is not permitted in other cases.

End quote from al-Fataawa al-Kubra, 4/21


What seems to be the case is that it is permissible to work as a doctor in the insurance department of the hospital and that is not regarded as helping in something haraam, because among the patients there are those who need this insurance or are compelled to take it out, or the company for which they work was forced to take out insurance on them and their families. In these cases it is permissible for people to benefit from health insurance as stated above. There will still be some who do not need it, but it is difficult to tell them apart and we ask Allah to forgive them.

And Allah knows best.

Working for life insurance company

Question : Salam Alicom, A friend of mine has gotten an offer from a life insurance company in USA. He is a student but he must work to support himself and his study. what makes the problem worse is that he must find a job by Sept 97 otherwise he will be illegal and will be kicked out of the country. So my questions are: (1) is working in life insurance companies Haram? (2) Are this circumstances for my friend considered a necessity and can he get this job until get a better one instead of loosing everything?

Al-hamdu lillah (praise be to Allah). Life insurance is among the most severely prohibited types of insurance if not the single worst one.

It is no doubt a type of gambling, and thus working in this field of employment is haram (prohibited), and it is forbidden to be a partner in helping people towards sin and enmity.

While taking into consideration the situation of this brother and the difficulty and distress that he has fallen into, I can but say: (translation of the meaning from surat al-Talaaq:2-3)

“And for those who fear Allah, He (ever) prepares for him a way out. And He provides for him from (sources) he could never expect” (65:2-3)