Fiqh Lesson (25th of December)

In the name of Allah
Assalamu aleikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu
Here are the notes of Fiqh lesson (25th of December) taught by Umm Ahmad / Amirah
Join us on Tuesday 9:00 pm Egypt time.
May Allah accept it from our teachers, ameen.
Questions on Sects and Schools of Thought
Question 25: If only those who follow Muhammad will be admitted into paradise, what about the generations who lived before his advent?
Answer 25: Those who lived before the prophet’s mission fall into two groups:
A. Those who worshiped God, the One, and kept his laws as revealed through a succession prophets. They will be rewarded or punishe according to their own deeds. Ultimately, they will enter paradise.
B. Those to whom a divine scripture was not revealed. They will be tested by God on the day of reckoning. Those who, then, manifest obedience to God will enter paradise, and those who manifest disobedience will enter hell.
Question 26: What are the differences and similarities netween Sinnism and Shi’ism? Are there other sects that are considered belonging to the fold of Islam?
Answer 26: Both Sunnis and Shi’as believe in God, His angels, His scriptures, His prophets, the day of judgement, fate, and the pillars of Islam, generally speaking.
Sunnis and Shi’as differ in some respects which include:
1. The Shi’as believe in the inerrancy and infalliablity of the imams coming from the prophet’s family.
2. Their belief that imams are divinely inspired, but to a lesser degree than prophets.
3. Their practice of tactical dissimulation in their dealings with their adversaries, whereby they believe that they are allowed to hide their beliefs.
4. The practice of mut’a, or temporary marriages. From a sunni perspective such marriages constitute adultry. There are many hadiths condemn this practice.
Undoubtedly, many other sects claim to belong to the fold of Islam. The mainstream Islamic population considers such sects in relation to their closeness to, or distance from, the teachings of mainstream Islam.
Judaism and Christianity are not accepted as viable religions after the advent of Islam. Islam has superseded them God says: “And whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him, and in the hereafter he will be one of the losers” (Holy Qur’an: 3: 85).
Question 27: Since Muslims have been allowed to build a mosque in Rome, why should not Christians be permitted to build churches in Arabia? Also, why are non-Muslims banned from entering Mecca and/or Medina, while Muslims have access to the Vatican?
Answer 27: Rome is just like any other place in the world. There is no particular sacredness attached to it. Building a mosque in Rome, therefore, should not be considered unusual. The prophet of Islam specifically proscribed the existence of two faiths in the Arabian penninsula. Hence, there are no churches in the penninsula. The Arabian penninsula is the bedrock of Islam, its nursery and the home of its sacred sites.
We can compare the Vatican and Mecca only to a certain extent. In the Qur’an, God explicitly conferred sacredness toMecca. The Vaticsn enjoys no such status even from a biblical point of view. In fact only the Cathoic denomination in Christendom attaches a special importance to the Vatican. Moreover, every country in the world has visa and entry regulations. Only those fulfilling such conditions are admitted. The only condition for entry to Mecca is to verify the Oneness of God and the belief in the prophethood of Muhammad (pbuh).
Question 28: If Islam is viable for all times and places, why is that Muslims are the world’s most backward people today?
Answer 28: It is a fact that Islam is valid for all times and places. Islamic civilization flourished for many centuries, especially at a time when the rest of the world was steeped in ignorance and backwardness. The west learnt a great deal and benefitted from the Islamic culture. The west built upon this past at the time Muslims became materialistic and lost their spiritual and civilizational focus. The backwardness of contemporary Muslims is the fault of Muslims not of Islam. Their backwardness is due to their deviation from Islamic teachings. However, Muslims still have the potential and the ability to achieve civilizational greatness. They have the elements of strength and progress. God gave us teachings to follow, and granted us geographical, natural and human resources. If we build upon these assets, we can enter into new renaissance, provided that we adhere to the teachings of Islam. Indeed the future belongs to the God-conscious. Islam’s future is bright. And It is a known fact that the achievement of a given system can only be sustained if the right people continue to work for it.
Question 29: Muslims claim to love Jesus, honour him, and believe in his message. Why then do they prefer Muhammad to him? Jesus is after all not only a messenger, but also the son of God.
Answer 29: There are two parts to this Question:
A. We, as Muslims, truly believe that Jesus, son of Mary, is one of the prophets belonging to the eleveated category of ulu al’azm prophets (possessors of steadfastness). Muslims love him, honour him and do believe in his message. However, Muslims consider him to be a servant to God and not a son of Him.
B. It is up to God to establish hierarchy among his messengers based on His divine wisdom. He made prophet Muhammad (pbuh) special in certain repects. He is the seal of the prophets. His message completes and abrogates all that came before him. He was also known as God’s intimate. Also, he was sent to all of the creation.
Question 30: Some Christian missionaries claim that Islam is not a rvealed religion. It is a distorted derivative version of Judaism and Christianity. Please comment.
Answer 30: What these missionaries are claiming is simply a misleading conjecture. While the prophet was preaching the new faith, the Jews and the Christians were, at the same time, practising their own religions. The new faith clearly contradicted Judaism and Christianity in very fundamental issues. Islam contradicted such beliefs held by Christians and Jews such as: ascribing human qualities to God (Jews witness that Uzair is the son of God). Their claim that Jesus was an illigitimate child and that they killed him. They also ascribed major sins to the prophets. They also claimed themselves to be the chosen people of God, His children and His beloved. The Christians claimed that Jesus is the son of God; that God is one person in a trinity and their belief in Jesus’s crucifixion and death. They also believe in the original sin an the Jesus’s atonement from the sins of mankind. The prophet’ teachings strongly refuted such beliefs. And in their stead he taught radical monotheism, God’s transcendence, and that He neither had a spouse, nor an offspring.
Islam also taught that all prophets were free from committing major sins. Also, the blessed Virgin Mary was not an adultress, and her son, Jesus, was God’s servant and messenger. He was neither crucified nor killed. The doctrine of trinity is false. The atonement for sins is also false. Jews are not a chosen people, rather all humans are God’s creation and equal in His sight except for those who manifest faith and God-consciousness.
Islam also brought many new rules which contradict with those of Judaism and Christianity. How then can one hold that Islam is a distorted copy of Judaism and/or Christinaity?
Question 31: Christians are civilized and rational. They therefore look critically at their scriptures. Muslims, on the other hand, avoid such practice. Do not you think that this shows regressive thinking and lack of rational thought?
Answer 31: This Question calls for a multifaced Answer:
1. The claim that Christians are civilized and rationa is counter-factual. How can a progressive man believe in superstitions, obscurist dogmas? How can we account for the moral decay through which their societies are passing?
2. It is not a civilized theory, nor it is progressive to criticize God.
3. The Christian’s criticism of their scriptures is due to the fact that these books have been distorted and changed. They have been added to and removed from. As a result some of these teachings clearly contradict reason, the facts and the common sense. The critical approach towards these scriptures is therefore only normal. Nonetheless, such criticismdid not clarify the issues as much as it obscured them and made many people lose faith in God.
4. The Qur’an and the prophet’s tradition are both divinely revealed. They are authentic. They do not abuse human reason, or contradict the facts of science. No critical approach in this case is, therefore, useful or warranted. No matter how educated a man is, he/she is still a created being. Human criticism of God is therefore an irrational proportion.
Man has to receive all that is authentically revealed by God with humility and submissiveness. Man needs to practice the revelation and live his life accordingly. Following such an attitude is not putting contraints on the mind, rather, it frees the mind to explore reality within what is humanly possible.
Question 32: Where do Jews and Christians stand today? Do you, Muslims, consider them believers or non-believers?
Answer 32: This Question calls for a two-faced Answer:
1. Their religious doctrines include a degradation of God’s ststus, as well as what amounts to insulting Him. These doctrines imply attributing partners to God, and ascribing to Him human biological qualities such as having an offspring, procreating, getting tired, oblivion, weeping and regretting. God’s prophets are also degraded by imputing to them major moral defects. All the above in addition to other contradictory and fabricated issues exist in their books. To Muslims, whoever holds such beliefs is a disbeliever without doubt.
2. Sincet the commandment of Muhammad’s prophetic mission, it has become incumbent upon all human beings to believe in his message. Anyone who has heard the call of Muhammad to embrace Islam and refute it is a disbeliever and will dwell in hell.
Question 33: Is Islam ready to accord to Christians in Mulsim countries the kind of freedom that Muslims enjoy in Christians countries? Can Christians enter mosques? Can they freely express their religious views? And can they freely proselytize?
Answer 33: Islam has historically granted to Christians living in Musim countries far more rights in than the rights Muslims have enjoyed in Christian countries. These rights and freedoms include:
1. The Christians’ right to retain their faith and pay some tax (jizya) in return for their protection.
2. They are granted security in terms of their lives, their properties and their religious institutions.
3. Islam forbade alcohol for Muslims, but allowed it for non-Muslims. This ruling also applies for the consumption of pork.
4. A dimension of this tolerance is Islam’s prescription of moderation and sound reason in their dialogue with Christians and Jews. God says: “And argue not with the people of the scripture (Jews and Christians) unless it be in (a way) that is better (with good words and in good manner)” (Holy Qur’an: 29: 46).
5. We call Jews and Christians living in Muslim dominions as ahl al-dhimmah (the protected people). The full designation is dhimatu al-Lah was ‘ahdihi wa ri’ayatihi (people under the protection, covenant and care of God). Muslims are forbidden from harming them. Instead they are urged to maintain good relationship with them. The prophet Muhammad (pbuh) taught: “Whoever verbally insults a dhimmi (a jew or a Christian living in a Mulsim country) will be flogged in the hereafter with whips from hellfire.”[1]
Can you say, then, that Muslims in Chritians countries enjoy the same privillages as accorded to Christians in Muslim countries? Even today, Muslim girls living in the west are being deprived of their right to wear their Muslim clothes at school.
As regarding admission of Christians and Jews in mosques, see Answer to Question 120.
Finally, Muslims, convinced as they are of the false nature of Jewish and Christian teachings, how can they be expected to allow the spread of such techings in Muslim communities?
Question 34: It was said that God created all human beings equal, in rights and responsibilities. Why there is then disparity in the religious rights of Muslims, on the one hand, and Jews and Chriastians on the other?
Answer 34: It is said:
1. Absolute equality between human beings is logically and practically groundless. Human beings are not equal. Islam simply advocates justice. God says: “Verily God enjoins justice and the doing of good…” (Holy Qur’an: 16: 90).
2. Undoubtedly a Mulsim cannot be equal to a non-Muslim, because God is pleased with those who have embraced the truth of Islam, not withstanding the prohibition of forced conversion to Islam. Muslims enjoy equal status in the sight of God: “The believers are nothing but brothers (in Islamic religion)…” (Holy Qur’an: 49: 10). Anyone who rejects this teaching cannot be deemed equal to those who embrace it.
God decrees the following: “Is he who walks prone (without seeing) on his face, more rightly guided, or he who (sees and) walks uprighly on the straight way (Islamic monotheism)?” (Holy Qur’an: 67: 22). Based on these divine revelations, it becomes inonceivable to equal Muslims and non-Muslims: “Shall We then treat the Muslims like the mujrimun (criminals, disbelievers)? What is the matter with you? How judge you? (Holy Qur’an: 68: 35-36).

Question 35 (A): If one of the spouses embraces Islam while the other remains Christian, is their marriage still islamically valid?

Answer 35 (A): If God guides the husband to Islam, then it is his duty to invite his family to Islam. If it is the wife who embraces Islam, while the husband remains Christian, she should invite her husband to Islam with wisdom and beautiful exhortations. Should he still refuse to become Muslim, then she is obligated to sever their marital relationship. A husband is practically the leader in any family, and it is unacceptable for a believer to be subjected to the leadership of a non-Muslim.
Question 35 (B): When the man is Muslim and the woman is a Christian, can the wife take the children to church?
Answer 35 (B): As stated above, the newly converted Muslim husband should invite his Christian spouse to the path of Islam. Should he fail to persuade her, he must not allow their children to practice any religion beside Islam.


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